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   2016| April-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 19, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Abrasivity of dentrifices: An update
Sunil Kumar Rath, Vipul Sharma, CB Pratap, TP Chaturvedi
April-June 2016, 7(2):96-100
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182662  
Tooth abrasion is a leading dental problem in common population. The main culprit of this is toothpaste abrasives. Hence, measurement and standardization of toothpaste is required. Various recommended methods were described previously. However, radioactive dentin abrasion (RDA) is the mostly followed method. In this article, we presented the basic need of toothpaste abrasivity testing, brief description of the recommended methods, different etiologies of tooth wasting other than caries, and RDA values of different tooth pastes.
  2,370 331 -
LETTER TO EDITOR
Miraculous honey: A sweet and valuable remedy in dentistry!!
Ujwala Rohan Newadkar
April-June 2016, 7(2):132-133
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182663  
  2,134 183 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Platform switch dental implants – Search for evidence:An overview
R Vijayalakshmi, T Ramakrishnan
April-June 2016, 7(2):101-105
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182660  
An implant prosthesis allows normal muscle function, and the implant stimulates the bone and maintains its dimensions in a manner similar to healthy natural teeth. Crestal bone loss can result in increased bacterial accumulation resulting in secondary periimplantitis which can further result in loss of bone support, which in turn can lead to occlusal overload resulting in implant failure. In implant dentistry, platform switching is a method used to preserve alveolar bone levels around dental implants. The concept refers to placing restorative abutment of narrower diameter on implants of wider diameter, rather than placing abutments of similar diameter, referred to as platform matching. This article is a literature overview of studies on platform switch implants and their effect on crestal bone loss.
  1,684 409 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A clinical survey of the output intensity of light curing units in dental offices across Nellore urban area
Koppolu Madhusudhana, Tavva Venkata Swathi, Chinni Suneelkumar, Anumula Lavanya
April-June 2016, 7(2):64-68
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182657  
Aim: The aim of the survey was to examine the output intensity of curing units and other related factors in private dental offices across Nellore urban area. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared about the type of curing unit, number of restorations performed in a week, maintenance of curing unit, frequency of changing bulb, measurement of output intensity, presence, or absence of composite build--ups on curing tips. The questionnaire was submitted to 100 private dental offices located in Nellore urban area. Each variable in the questionnaire had an impact on quality of the composite restoration. Each curing unit light tip was also observed for the presence or absence of composite build--up. The output intensity of the curing light was measured using a digital radiometer (Ivoclar). The average of the three readings of the output intensity was obtained for each curing light. The average output intensity was divided into three categories (<400 mW/cm2, 400–850 mW/cm2, and 850–1000 mW/cm2). Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically analyzed using linear regression analysis. Results: Among the 100 curing units examined, 84 were light emitting diode (LED) units, and 16 were quartz tungsten halogen (QTH) units. Only 22% LED machines and 3% QTH curing units had adequate intensities (>850 mW/cm2). A significant reduction in output intensity is seen with both types of older light curing units. Nearly 50% of practitioners had never checked the light output of their unit. Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a general lack of awareness among dentists of the need for maintenance of these units.
  1,788 241 1
Oral health status, awareness, attitude, practices, and level of nicotine dependence among Tamil Nadu Electricity Board workers in North Chennai, Tamil Nadu
TC Bharathi, K Kavitha, R Ganesh
April-June 2016, 7(2):73-77
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182673  
Aim: To assess the oral health status, awareness, attitude, practices, and level of nicotine dependence among electricity board workers in North Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the electricity board workers in North Chennai. About 285 electricity board workers answered the questionnaire regarding the oral health awareness, attitude, practices, and also Fagerstrom nicotine dependence questionnaire was used to record the tobacco usage. After answering the questionnaire, the subjects were examined using the mouth mirrors and probe under natural light for recording the oral health status using oral hygiene index-simplified index and decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 21. Results: The mean DMFT of electricity board workers was 4.168 ± 2.766. About 91.6% of electricity board workers were with fair oral hygiene status. Prevalence of smoking among the study subjects was 26.7% and smokeless tobacco was 9.1%. Conclusions: The finding of the study provides the insight into the oral health status and awareness among electricity board workers in North Chennai. The oral health status of the electricity board workers is in a fair state. Steps should be taken so as to provide basic dental care facilities for the workers.
  1,699 275 -
CASE REPORTS
Fragment reattachment of a complicated crown-root fracture in primary maxillary central Incisor and 1 year follow-up
Amit Khatri, Sudhir Kumar, Namita Kalra, Rishi Tyagi
April-June 2016, 7(2):124-127
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182669  
Coronal fracture of anterior teeth is a common form of dental trauma that affects children and adolescents. It is a tragic experience, which requires immediate attention and quick functional and esthetic repair. The major challenge for the clinician for managing such type of dental injuries is to re-establish the natural esthetics of the traumatized anterior tooth. Traditionally, such injuries have been restored with composite resins. They have the primary disadvantage of color mismatch and variable wear. Therefore, if a broken fragment is available, the restoration of the tooth using its own fragment should be the first treatment of choice. This clinical report describes reattachment of tooth fragment of complicated crown-root fracture of a deciduous maxillary central incisor in a 4-year-old child following trauma.
  1,232 217 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of the frequency and demographic profile of inflammatory dentigerous cyst in Central Indian population
Ritesh Kalaskar, Ashita Kalaskar
April-June 2016, 7(2):53-57
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182658  
Objective: Inflammatory dentigerous cysts (IDCs) are the most common cysts of inflammatory origin involving immature unerupted premolars or incisors. These cysts develop as a result of intrafollicular spread of periapical inflammation from an overlying nonvital primary tooth. Recently, many case reports have been reported in the literature indicating their presence at an early age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and demographic profile of IDCs in Central Indian population. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observation of the study was made on 112 IDCs from 6625 new children reporting to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry. Following variables were recorded: Frequency, demographic profile, radiographic features, treatment, and risk factors. Descriptive analysis was made of study variables using the SPSS Version 21.0. Results: The frequency of IDC was found to be 1.7% in Central Indian population. There was male predominance with a mean age of 8.8 years. Posterior mandibular region was the most common site followed by maxillary posterior. Marsupialization was the most commonly used treatment modality. Conclusion: Oral healthcare professionals should be aware of the frequency, demographic profile, and radiographical features of IDCs so that early diagnosis and definitive treatment of these lesions can be planned.
  1,215 197 -
CASE REPORTS
Esthetic management of early childhood caries in primary maxillary anterior teeth comprising a supplemental tooth
Namratha Tharay, Sivakumar Nuvvula
April-June 2016, 7(2):118-120
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182666  
Early childhood caries (ECC) is a severe problem in the children that necessities the pulpal and/or esthetic restorative management. Primary supplemental teeth associated with its succedaneous permanent teeth is a rare dental anomaly. Both the ECC and supplemental teeth predispose for the early intervention that influence the esthetic, physiological, and psychological factors. Hence, the present paper reports a 2 years 10 months boy with severe ECC and the presence of primary maxillary supplemental tooth associated with its succedaneous tooth, symptomatically and esthetically managed with wire posts and strip crowns. The present paper also discusses a brief review of supernumerary teeth regarding its prevalence, theories and management of the same.
  1,199 205 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparing the accuracy of linear measurements in different image views of Galileos cone-beam computed tomography unit
Sajad Ghorbanizadeh, Mehrdad Abdinian, Reyhaneh Faghihian, Hossein Goroohi
April-June 2016, 7(2):58-63
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182672  
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of linear measurements in axial, cross-sectional, and tangential cone-beam computed tomography. (CBCT) images in dry human skulls. Materials and Methods: Six dry human skulls were included in the study. Opaque markers were attached to the alveolar bone. Buccolingual and mesiodistal distances and height were measured in 5 different regions by a digital caliper. (Guanglu, Taizhou, China). Radiographic measurements were made in tangential, cross-sectional, and axial CBCT images. To determine the accuracy of linear measurements, the physical and radiographic measurements were compared. Intraclass correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon, one-sample t-test, and univariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. Results: The differences between physical and radiographic measurements were not clinically significant in any of the views. (P < 0.05). Conclusions: By opaque markers, the accuracy of measurements in Galileos CBCT machine is adequate in all CBCT image views.
  1,079 167 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Soft tissue infection of the head and neck in HIV –A vexing diagnostic conundrum
R Keerthi, Tulasi Nayak
April-June 2016, 7(2):83-90
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182670  
Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) are a spectrum of aggressive and devastating conditions with a high mortality rate. Immunocompromised patients are highly susceptible to these infections and may manifest unusual variants and varied combinations of the various conditions in this spectrum. We present here an unusual case of NSTI of the head and neck in an HIV-positive patient, highlighting the difficulty in diagnosis and the importance of lab risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis scoring and swift, aggressive surgical therapy.
  1,125 110 -
CASE REPORTS
Gemination of a mandibular third molar: A rare case report
Arvind Venkatesh, Siddhartha Goel, Vijay Wadhwan, Vishal Bansal
April-June 2016, 7(2):121-123
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182674  
The disturbances in the shape of the teeth include gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, talon cusp, dens in dente, dens evaginatus, taurodontism, and supernumerary roots. Gemination is defined as a single enlarged tooth or joined tooth in which the tooth count is normal when the anomalous tooth is counted as one, even though the exact pathogenesis may be questionable. Gemination is more common in the deciduous dentition compared to permanent dentition. This condition is rarely associated with mandibular third molars, and the terminology has often been a topic of debate when the condition in associated with this tooth. Here, we present a case of gemination associated with the mandibular third molar, showing an unusual and distinct crown and root morphology. The clinical and radiographic features, pulp chamber, and root canal morphology using stereomicroscopy and the histological features of the tooth have been discussed in detail.
  993 153 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Retrospective evaluation of splinting performed in a Nigerian periodontology clinic
Clement Chinedu Azodo, PI Ojehanon
April-June 2016, 7(2):69-72
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182664  
Objective: To determine the characteristics, reasons, and patterns of splinting done in the Periodontology clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review of patients treated with splints in the Periodontology clinic of University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, over a 3-year period (January 2013–December 2015) was done using a self-developed pro forma as the data collection tool. Results: A total of ten patients aged between 24 and 68 years with a mean age of 45.40 ± 14.19 years had composite and wire splinting. The majority of the patients were middle--aged adults and elderly (60.0%), females (60.0%), indigenous people (70.0%), and reside near the specialist clinic (60.0%). The patients were mostly the first-time dental clinic attendee (80.0%), fully dentate (80.0%), and had fair oral hygiene status (70.0%). The reasons for dental attendance among the patients were mainly due to pain (50.0%) and tooth mobility (50.0%). The main reason for the splinting was tooth mobility caused by chronic periodontitis (50.0%). The patients had 1–11 mobile teeth with a mean of 3.5 teeth. Central incisor (90.0%) was almost always the involved mobile tooth in the treated patients. The periodontal treatments involved were scaling and root planing, medications, incision, and drainage for the abscess. The most prescribed antibiotic was doxycycline. The splinting was equally divided into maxillary and mandibular arches. The majority of the splinting were done on buccal/labial surfaces of the teeth (80.0%). On recall, three cases (30.0%) had complications in form of debonding; one case was changed from lingual/palatal surfaces to buccal/labial surfaces while the other two cases were redone. Conclusion: Periodontal splinting were done mainly for older, nonprofessional, female, indigenous patients for varied reasons in the studied periodontology clinic.
  920 213 -
CASE REPORTS
Treacher Collins syndrome: A case report and review of literature
Tarun Kumar, Neha Arora, Ajaypal Singh Kataria, Dheeraj Sharma
April-June 2016, 7(2):128-131
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182659  
Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) or Franceschetti syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with variable expressivity. It is named after E. Treacher Collins who described the essential components of the condition in 1900. The incidence of this syndrome is approximately 1 in 50,000 live births, and it affects both genders equally. It affects structures, which are derivatives of the first and second brachial arches. The most common manifestations of TCS are the antimongoloid slanting of the palpebral fissures, colobomas of the lower eyelid, hypoplasia of zygoma and mandible; and a variety of ear abnormalities. This article describes clinical and radiographic features of TCS in an 18-month-old female who had reported to the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology.
  919 137 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Myofibroblasts in oral health and odontogenic lesions
Srikanth Ramarao Prabakar, T Dinesh Kumar, Rajkumar Krishnan, S Sunil Prakash
April-June 2016, 7(2):91-95
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182665  
Myofibroblasts (MFs) are the cells that are not only essential for the integrity of the human body by virtue of its role in physiological tissue repair (wound healing), but can also threaten it by its ability to promote tumor development. Under physiological conditions, after wound healing, MFs disappear by apoptosis, but when there is continued insult, these MFs persist in the tissue and result in dysfunctional repair mechanisms causing excessive secretion of extracellular matrix with resultant fibrosis and scarring. MFs are phenotypically altered fibroblasts and are a unique group of smooth muscle-like fibroblasts that have a similar appearance and function regardless of their tissue of residence. MFs originate from different precursor cells, the major contribution being from local recruitment of connective tissue fibroblasts. However, local mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and cells derived from an epithelial-mesenchymal transition process, may represent alternative sources of MFs when local fibroblasts are not able to satisfy the requirement for these cells during repair. Apart from pathological remodeling of tissues, they play an important role in organogenesis and oncogenesis, inflammation, repair, and fibrosis. Because of their ubiquitous presence in all tissues, MFs play important roles in various organ diseases and perhaps in multisystem diseases as well. In the light of such severe consequences of MF appearance and dysfunction, the necessity of more profoundly understanding the molecular mechanisms of MF formation and function is essential. This article highlights the overview of MFs and their role in oral health and disease particularly in relation to odontogenic lesions.
  833 137 -
CASE REPORTS
Peripheral ossifying fibroma: A rare case series
Swati Phore, Rahul Singh Panchal, Pallavi Baghla, Nuzhat Nabi
April-June 2016, 7(2):106-110
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182667  
Many types of localized reactive lesions may occur on the gingiva, including focal fibrous hyperplasia, pyogenic granuloma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, and peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF). These lesions may arise as a result of such irritants as trauma, microorganisms, plaque, calculus, restorations, and dental appliances. The purpose of this article is to present case series of POF, briefly review the current literature on this condition, and emphasize the importance of discussion of a reasonable differential diagnosis with the patient or a parent.
  670 109 -
Mural calcifications in keratocystic odontogenic tumor: Report of a case with a brief review
Suhasini Gotur Palakshappa, Vijay Wadhwan, Preeti Sharma, Vishal Bansal
April-June 2016, 7(2):111-113
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182668  
Hard tissue deposits or mineralization in the wall of the keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) are infrequent and unusual. They are usually of dystrophic calcification or cartilage type, and dentinoid formation, although reported, is a rare phenomenon. Here, a rare case of extensive mural calcifications in the wall of the KCOT involving maxillary premolar-molar area, in a 14-year-old boy is described. These calcifications were found to be dentinoid, confirmed with the use of special stains.
  673 101 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of the effect of jaw shape/size options in a new brand of digital panoramic machine on the accuracy of linear and angular measurements
Mehrdad Abdinian, Reyhaneh Faghihian, Farnaz Farhad
April-June 2016, 7(2):78-82
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182671  
Introduction: Although placement of structures within the focal trough is important, image sharpness is affected by other factors such as the shape and size of the jaw in panoramic machines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of jaw shape/size options in a digital panoramic machine on the accuracy of linear and angular measurements. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, one dry human skull was chosen, and hypothetical tooth positions were determined. Horizontal, vertical, and angular dimensions were indicated by gutta-percha in tooth positions and assessed by two observers. After determining jaw shape and size, standard panoramic radiographs were obtained in 6 positions by changing the focal trough shape and with two other shapes and one larger size of the jaw. Linear and angular measurements were made by two separate observers individually on each radiograph. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 20. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and paired t-test were used for data analysis. Results: According to ICC values, inter-observer correlations for radiographic measurements and for physical measurements were 0.994 and 0.995, respectively (P < 0.001). There were significant differences between vertical and angular measurement son one hand and actual measurements on the other (P < 0.05); however, the difference between horizontal and actual measurements was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that vertical and angular measurements were clinically reliable with all the options. However, jaw size and shape options which changed the focal trough did not improve the accuracy of horizontal measurements.
  659 95 -
CASE REPORTS
Nonsyndromic multiple dentigerous cyst: A rare clinical presentation
U Punitha Gnanaselvi, D Kamatchi, Keerthana Sekar, Soorya Narayanan
April-June 2016, 7(2):114-117
DOI:10.4103/0976-433X.182661  
Odontogenic developmental cysts of jaws usually present as asymptomatic lesions. Dentigerous cyst is one variety of these cysts, which may grow to a large size within the jaws before it manifests clinically. This aggressive behavior can be attributed to its potential to transform to ameloblastoma and squamous cell carcinoma. We present a case of nonsyndromic multiple dentigerous cysts associated with multiple impacted maxillary and mandibular teeth manifesting as diffuse swelling of the mid-face and lower face region.
  623 112 1
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