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   2014| October-December  | Volume 5 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 20, 2014

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Pit and fissure sealants in pediatric dentistry
George Babu, Shanthala Mallikarjun, Bobby Wilson, Chandru Premkumar
October-December 2014, 5(4):253-257
Caries on the occlusal surface of dentition is a significant dental health problem. Molars and premolars are the most vulnerable teeth to caries attack. The high susceptibility of these teeth to caries is directly related to morphology of their occlusal surface. Fluoride's great success in preventing tooth decay on smooth surfaces has made dental caries largely a disease of rough irregularities. Enamel surfaces with pits and fissures receive minimal caries protection from either systemic or topical fluoride agents, the reason for ineffectiveness of fluorides in the pit and fissure caries may be related to the differences in enamel thickness and the inaccessibility of the base of pits and fissures to topical fluorides. The most efficient way to prevent pit and fissure caries is by effectively sealing the fissures using resins called pit and fissure sealants.
  17,185 2,238 1
Molar incisor hypomineralisation: A review of its current concepts and management
Ramesh Krishnan, Maya Ramesh
October-December 2014, 5(4):248-252
Over the past two decades, there is an increasing number of congenital defects affecting enamel mineralisation referred to as "molar incisor hypomineralisation" (MIH). This defect usually involves one to four permanent first molars and permanent incisors. Clinically, the defect presents as opaque lesions varying in colour from white to yellow or brown, with a sharp demarcation between the affected and sound enamel to posteruptive enamel breakdown. The destruction of enamel is so rapid and clinically, it presents as if the enamel has not formed at all. It has been postulated that MIH is a consequence of a variety of environmental factors acting systemically, which disturb the ameloblasts during amelogenesis. However, the possibility of a genetic component in the development of MIH cannot be excluded. Management of MIH always pose a big problem to the clinicians, as well as for the child due to severe sensitivity caused by the defective enamel.
  8,491 1,565 4
Ameloglyphics: An adjunctive aid in individual identification
Ravindrakumar Bharanidharan, Raghavendhar Karthik, A Rameshkumar, P Rajashree, K Rajkumar
October-December 2014, 5(4):264-268
Human identification in homicides and mass disasters has been largely possible with skeletal remains, especially teeth, when soft tissue cannot provide reliable information or has been lost. From the point of forensic dental identification especially in identifying victims of man-made disasters such as in military conflicts and wars involving multiple fatalities, there is urgent need for new and reliable methods of identification and corroboration. Various methods currently employed in forensic odontology for personal identification include comparing with ante mortem dental charts, rugoscopy, denture labelling, DNA analysis from dental pulp, bite mark analysis, etc. Recently there is growing interest in the study of enamel rod end patterns. These enamel rod end patterns are termed as tooth prints and the study of these prints is known as Ameloglyphics (amelo: Enamel, glyphics: Carvings). The tooth prints are unique, exhibiting dissimilarity both between teeth of different individuals and of the same individual. This uniqueness of the tooth print could be used as a valuable tool in forensic science for personal identification. This review highlights about the basis of using enamel rod end patterns, methods of obtaining the patterns, and delineating its sub-patterns.
  5,757 982 1
The prevalence of malocclusion and its gender distribution among Indian school children: An epidemiological survey
Roopa Siddegowda, Rani M Satish
October-December 2014, 5(4):224-229
Context: Since antiquity malocclusion is a problem. People have different perception about the problem which varies according to their geographical location and cultural background. The problem of malocclusion is more severe in developing countries like India. It can compromise the oral health tissues and can lead to social and the psychological problems. Aims: To assess the prevalence of malocclusion and its gender distribution among the Indian school children. Settings and Design: School settings and Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in all the 30 districts of Karnataka, India. School children in the age group of 10-16 years were the target population. Population proportionate technique was employed for the sample size estimation. A total sample of 9505 was randomly selected from 102 schools all over Karnataka, India. Ackermann-Proffit classification of malocclusion was used to record the malocclusion. Statistical analysis used: Simple Descriptive statistics. Results and Conclusion: Prevalence of crowding is 50.4% in boys and 51.4% in girls. Cross-bite was reported in 17.8% and 18.3% in boys and girls, respectively. Angles class I malocclusion was reported in 78.4% of boys and 80.2% of girls. Angles class II malocclusion was reported in 21.5% of boys and 19.8% of girls and class III malocclusion was observed in 0.1% of boys.
  3,983 1,682 1
Effect of commercially available probiotic product on the level of salivary microflora in children of West Bengal
Barun Dasgupta, Shabnam Zahir
October-December 2014, 5(4):219-223
Context: Newer concepts and methods are being researched and being implemented every day. One such newest variety of preventive measure is the use of probiotics. Aims: This study tries to explore the effect of commercially available probiotic product on the level of the salivary microflora in children of West Bengal in a specific period. Materials and Methods: The study was of a randomized, placebo-controlled design. The total of 90 children between age group 6 and 14 years were selected at random, as study and control group. The study group was provided with the commercially available probiotic product "Eugi" sachet with milk as a vehicle for "21" days, whereas control group is provided with only plain milk. Salivary concentration of few specific cariogenic bacteria was measured in both study and control group in the beginning and at the interval at 0, 1, 3, and 5 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Average, standard deviation for a varied comparison was calculated. Student's t-test and probability test were performed. Results: The significant difference in between control and study group only existed at 1-month interval and difference again became insignificant in respective intervals ahead. Conclusions: The study concluded that, (1) there was significant reduction of Gram-positive colony (GPC) counts after 1 month in the probiotic consumed group. (2) During the interval of 1 to 3 months, the GPC counts showed increase in a number and they were restored to the baseline concentration which was maintained till the 5 th month. (3) There was no significant variation in GPC count between different age groups at all intervals.
  1,169 3,774 -
Fourth molar tooth in the mandible: A rare case report
Arathi Karikal, Arvind Karikal
October-December 2014, 5(4):280-282
Supernumerary teeth are located in the anterior maxilla, mandible and to a lesser frequency posterior region of the mandible. They are classified according to their location and form. Their presence may or may not give rise to a variety of clinical problems. Detection of supernumerary teeth is usually achieved by clinical and radiographic examination. Their management should form part of a comprehensive treatment plan. A fourth molar tooth is a very rare entity in modern humans although prevalent in early humans. This article presents an overview of odontogenesis; aberrations associated with supernumerary teeth and includes a note on their incidence and prevalence.
  3,045 215 -
Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst
Ramakrishnan Bharathi, Gnanadeepam Santiago, Parthiban Nallaiyan
October-December 2014, 5(4):287-289
Odontogenic keratocyst is a cyst derived from the remnants of the dental lamina, with a biologic behavior similar to benign neoplasm and it is now designated as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) in the new World Health Organization classification. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC) is a rare developmental odontogenic cyst that has been considered as a variant of KCOT until Wright (1981) defined it as a different entity. The OOC is a specific odontogenic clinicopathological entity that should be differentiated from the KCOT as it presents a completely different biological behavior. Here we present a case of OOC in a 19year-old male patient and review on its clinical and histological aspects.
  2,584 281 1
Role of cytokines in oral malignancies
Shabnam Unus, Sarangarajan Ramabadran, Preeti Lakshmi, Narasimham , Nandhini Gunasekaran, Rajkumar Krishnan
October-December 2014, 5(4):274-279
Cytokines are nonstructural proteins, which act as molecular messengers in the movement of various inflammatory cells, as well as in inducing growth and regeneration in the surrounding microenvironment. The inflammatory cytokine network, which influences growth, proliferation, and differentiation of cells in normal health and healing has also been found to induce tumorigenesis and tumor progression. A detailed study of the role of cytokines in various cancers has brought out many facts regarding the mechanisms and sequence of events that has eventually led to cancer. A study of these cytokines in tumorigenesis will throw further light on its usefulness in early detection of oral cancer and its potential as a therapeutic target in cancer therapy.
  2,276 387 3
Immunohistochemical evaluation of myofibroblasts using alpha-smooth muscle actin in oral submucous fibrosis
Teena Philip, T Dinesh Kumar, K Rajkumar, K Raghavendhar Karthik, N Priyadharsini, A Ramesh Kumar
October-December 2014, 5(4):243-247
Introduction: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic debilitating disease and a premalignant condition of the oral cavity characterized by generalized submucosal fibrosis with a multifactorial etiology. Myofibroblasts are a unique group of cells phenotypically intermediate between smooth muscle cells and fibroblast exhibiting contractile properties, expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and are considered primary producers of extracellular matrix after injury. Their accumulation has been established as a marker of progressive fibrosis in various organs. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and compare the myofibroblasts in various histological grades of OSMF. Materials and Method: Fifteen cases of OSMF, which were further categorized histologically into early (5 cases), moderately advanced (5 cases) and advanced (5 cases), were subjected to immunohistochemical evaluation using α-SMA antibody for detection of myofibroblasts. Fifteen benign mucosal proliferation specimens were also stained for comparison. Results: The number of myofibroblasts in OSMF was significantly increased when compared to that of benign mucosal proliferations (P < 0.05). Additionally, a statistically significant increase in the myofibroblasts population between early and advanced stages was observed (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that expression of myofibroblasts within the OSMF group showed a progressive increase from the early OSMF through moderate OSMF and the advanced OSMF group indicating that myofibroblasts could serve as effective prognostic marker for disease progression in oral submucous fibrosis.
  2,317 329 3
Estimation of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde in serum and saliva of patients with oral lichen planus
VP Jayasekharan, R Ramya, K Rajkumar, T Dinesh Kumar, G Nandhini, S Satish Kumar
October-December 2014, 5(4):230-236
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum and saliva of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and to compare the levels. Materials and Methods: The study included 10 cases of OLP patients which formed the study group and 10 cases of healthy individuals, which formed the controls. The saliva sample was diluted with 10 ml of phosphate buffered saline in order to neutralize the pH. After diluting, the mixture was centrifuged for 5 min at 3000 rpm and the supernatant fluid was stored at −80°C until use. Blood was allowed to clot and was centrifuged for 5 min at 3000 rpm. The clear serum was separated and stored at −80°C until analysis. Statistical Analysis: The analysis was done using SPSS software. Mean and standard deviations were analyzed using the independent samples t-test to compare the mean values of NO and MDA assay. Results: The levels of NO and MDA were significantly higher in serum and saliva of cases with lichen planus than in normal and increase in level of NO was significantly higher than the increase in the level of MDA. Conclusion: Salivary levels of NO and MDA were found to be significantly higher than serum levels, which suggested that saliva can be used as an alternate and effective diagnostic tool in evaluating the oxidative stress status of an individual and antioxidants may be used to reverse the oxidative stress status in lichen planus.
  1,929 461 1
Health disparity with light on oral health inequality - A review
Bennadi Darshana, Kshetrimayum Nandita
October-December 2014, 5(4):258-263
A health disparity (HD) is one of the major public health challenges. The "Healthy People 2020" have got many objectives which includes having access to preventive dental services. Another important activity of "Healthy People 2020" is to monitor health disparities. Oral health is essential to the general health and well-being of individuals as well as for the entire population. Disparities in health among income, racial and ethnic groups are significant. The most powerful factors shaping both health and health disparities are social and economic determinants, or the community conditions for health. [1] This paper reviews health disparity with light on oral health inequalities and its prevention.
  2,101 152 -
Evaluation of short term impact of two training packages on oral health knowledge and skills of Anganwadi workers of a Northern City of India: Before and after comparison study
Sonika Raj, Sonu Goel, Naveen Krishan Goel, Vijaylakshmi Sharma, Sangeeta Ajay
October-December 2014, 5(4):237-242
Introduction: Despite a serious public health problem, oral hygiene is largely ignored by community. Anganwadi workers (AWWs) can be trained on oral hygiene so that they disseminate information to a wider section of society. Objective: To compare the impact of two oral hygiene training packages on the knowledge and skills of AWW of Chandigarh. Materials and Methods: Before and after comparison study was conducted on AWWs of Chandigarh. The AWWs of Project-1 (n = 112) were provided with knowledge based training package and AWWs of Project-2 (n = 98) were provided with skill based training package. The difference between two packages was analyzed using Chi-square test and difference-in-difference analysis of group scores. Results: The pre-posttraining difference of a number of respondents scoring <22 in the knowledge domain was 43% (pretraining - 11% and posttraining - 54%) in Project-1, whereas, in Project-2 this increase was higher at 54% (pretraining - 6% and posttraining - 60%). The difference-in-difference results showed that there was statistically significant (P = 0.04) improvement in the knowledge scores of AWWs of two projects scoring <22 marks. The increase in skill scores between two projects was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Increase in skills of AWWs imparted with skill based package was significantly better as compared to the knowledge based package, thus indicating its usefulness over a knowledge-based package. Skill-based oral hygiene package should be imparted to community workers.
  1,427 215 -
An insight of genetic polymorphism and the commonly studied polymorphisms associated with oral cancer
Jeevankumar Sangeetha, Annasamy Rameshkumar, Ramadas Ramya, Padmanaban Rajashree, Krishnan Rajkumar
October-December 2014, 5(4):269-273
Oral and pharyngeal cancers are some of the most common cancers worldwide. The risk of developing oral cancer is modified by environment, lifestyle, genetics, and a combination of these factors. Both environmental carcinogens and polymorphisms together or individually play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Various genes show polymorphisms, which are thought to play a major role in interindividual variability in drug response, and in susceptibility to chemical induced diseases, like several types of cancers. The objective of this review is to discuss in detail about the various polymorphism, molecular functions and the polymorphic association of various genes.
  998 170 -
Desmoplastic hybrid ameloblastoma presenting as a fibrous epulis
LR Kumaraswamy Naik, Pushparaja Shetty, Padmaraj Hegde
October-December 2014, 5(4):283-286
Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with specific clinical, imaging, and histological features. Histologically, it is characterized by extensive stromal desmoplasia with small compressed nests and strands of odontogenic epithelium. The purpose of this article is to present a case of central DA that showed unusual clinical presentation of a classic solid/multicystic ameloblastoma occurring as a peripheral lesion in the form of gingival epulis, arising from extraction site and showed histopathological feature of a hybrid variant.
  870 177 -