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   2012| October-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 4  
    Online since July 12, 2013

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Calcified stylohyoid ligaments: A diagnostic dilemma
Atul Kaushik, Renu Tanwar, Payal Garg, Monika Kaushik, Rajneesh Panwar, Shobhit Garg
October-December 2012, 3(4):275-278
Calcification or ossification of elongated stylohyoid ligaments is often an incidental finding on radiographs. Abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression of a number of vital nerves and vessels related to it and these symptoms may be confused with other causes of head and neck pain. The diagnosis is often difficult as a result of the vague symptomatology. This paper discusses the pain patterns, clinical presentation, radiologic findings and treatment of elongated calcified stylohyoid ligaments.
  23,479 649 -
Role of tumor markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma: Review of literature and future consideration
Muralee Mohan Choontharu, Arpit Binda, Smitha Bhat, Sampathila Mahalinga Sharma
October-December 2012, 3(4):251-256
Sensitive and reliable early diagnostic markers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unavailable. Early identification of recurrence for OSCC is also a challenge. This article reviews the recently identified biomarkers for OSCC such as cytokeratins, p53, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), etc., which are of great utility in early diagnosis. In addition, the biomarkers that have been correlated with OSCC tumor malignancy by molecular pathology analysis are also described. This article speaks about selected reaction monitoring (SRM) which might even be applied to monitor differential expression of tumor proteins in blood, saliva, or fresh frozen tissue materials. SRM technique may complement or possibly replace western blotting for biomarker verification and for selection of potential biomarker candidates. This article may help to identify the potential biomarkers for screening and the molecular pathology analysis for high-risk patients of OSCC. Effective screening to identify high-risk patients will allow clinicians to provide an early and appropriate treatment to patients without delay and also reduce the risk of recurrence of OSCC.
  8,376 1,813 2
Emerging from an undergraduate dental degree program
John Crean
October-December 2012, 3(4):225-226
  839 3,572 -
Alcohol and periodontal health in adolescence
Ranjan Katyal, Nitin Saroch, AK Bharat Bhushan
October-December 2012, 3(4):257-263
Alcohol is considered to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults in most parts of the world. Ethanol, the most common hepatotoxin, can injure the liver cells directly or through its toxic metabolites i.e., acetaldehyde and free radicals. Its effect begins on its exposure to oral mucosa, but liver is the main site for its metabolism and not surprisingly its toxicity. Besides promoting the formation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, long-term ethanol ingestion might deplete the hepatocyte of some important secondary component of the antioxidant defense system. Thus, alcohol and its metabolites tip the balance between the oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system toward the net oxidant excess, which seems to be one of the contributing factors in the pathophysiology of periodontitis, oral cancer besides alcohol-induced liver disease.
  4,008 402 3
Periodontal vaccine: A short synopsis
Priyanka K Cholan, D Mythireyi, CS Anand Mohan, P Rajapriya
October-December 2012, 3(4):240-246
Immunization using a vaccine against periodontitis decreases the number of periodontopathic bacteria in the subgingival flora and inhibits alveolar bone destruction in several animal models. The foremost step in vaccine development is identification of an antigenic component from various organisms that can provide immune protection. Identification of such an antigen is made difficult by the fact in that the periodontopathic species has a complex clonal structure with multiple serotypes, and no single type or groups of types have been documented to cause human periodontitis. This review highlights the importance of Porphyromonas gingivalis and its antigenic components as a potential candidate for periodontal vaccination.
  3,325 594 -
Circummandibular wiring: An absolute answer to paediatric maxillofacial trauma: An unusual case report
Suresh Yadav, Shallu Tyagi, Prince Kumar, Navita Sharma
October-December 2012, 3(4):268-270
On an average the incidence of pediatric maxillofacial injuries accounts for 4-6% of cases. Operative management should involve minimal manipulation and may be modified by the stage of skeletal and dental development. The goal of treatment of these fractures is to restore the underlying bony architecture to pre-injury position, in a stable fashion, as non-invasively as possible, and with minimal residual esthetic and functional impairment. The purpose of this article is to provide an insight on maxillofacial injuries in pediatric patient and to assist the clinician in the management of mandibular parasymphysis fracture in children with occlusal acrylic splint fixed with circummandibular wiring, a definitive treatment modality.
  3,406 320 -
The determinants of dental caries among school-going children of Jaipur, Rajasthan: A cross-sectional study
Rajaat Vohra, Anusha Vohra, Anuj Jain
October-December 2012, 3(4):227-230
Introduction: The rise in prevalence of dental caries in developing countries is mainly because oral health care system mostly focuses on curative care. The community-based prevention and oral health promotion have not been systematically implemented. Aims: The present study is designed to assess the magnitude and determinants of dental caries in school children in Jaipur district. Materials and Methods: A list of government and private schools was procured from Office of Basic Shiksha Adhikari. Four schools each, in urban and rural areas, were selected by simple random sampling. All children belonging to class 1 st to 5 th standard, available at the time of study, were included as study unit. Predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit the information on family characteristics, individual characteristics, and their food consumption patterns. The subjects were examined on an upright chair in adequate natural light to detect dental caries. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed using statistical package for social services (SPSS) version 11.5. Chi-square test was used to find out the significant association between prevalence of dental caries and demographic and individual characteristics. Results: A total of 564 children of 1 st to 5 th standard participated in the study. Overall, the prevalence of dental caries was found to be 67.11%. Mother's education, residence, consumption of more sweets per week or more chocolates/toffees per day were the statistically significant factors associated with dental caries. Conclusions: Children belonging to rural area, consuming more sweets and chocolates, and whose mothers were less educated had higher prevalence of dental caries. As a preventive strategy, there is a need to implement health education program for maintaining good oral hygiene.
  1,473 1,951 -
Influence of various environmental conditions on DNA isolation from dental pulp for sex determination using polymerase chain reaction
Suresh Vemuri, R Ramya, K Rajkumar, P Rajashree
October-December 2012, 3(4):231-235
Objective: To determine the reliablility of sex determination by polymerase chain reaction Materials and Methods: Extracted teeth were subjected to the following treatment: Varying temperature (100, 200, 300, and 400°C), immersing in sea water (20-36 days), and burying at 30-cm depth. After subjecting to specific environmental stress condition, DNA (Deoxy Ribonucleic acid) was extracted from the tooth pulp. Primers Y-chromosome specifi c alphoid centromeric repeat sequences DYZ3, X-chromosome specifi c alphoid centromeric repeat sequence DXZ1 were used for sex determination by PCR. Results: Out of 15 samples subjected to various environmental conditions, DNA was isolated in 13 samples and sex determination was carried out. There was no DNA yield when teeth were subjected to high temperatures (300, 400°C). The DNA analysis after the respective PCR showed accurate sex determination of the 13 samples. Conclusion: our study showed that teeth are reliable source for sex determination even when subjected to different environmental conditions except during extreme high temperatures. Hence, sex determination by PCR analysis is the most reliable method in markedly decayed or preadolescent bodies.
  2,229 411 1
Immunohistochemical analysis of dentigerous cyst and ameloblastoma using cytokeratin 19 & 14, p53, p63 and ki-67
K Sudheer Kanth, T Dinesh Kumar, A Ramesh Kumar
October-December 2012, 3(4):236-239
Introduction: Odontogenic cysts and tumours constitute an important aspect of oral and maxillofacial pathology. Although they arise from the same odontogenic apparatus, they are distinct entities with different pathogenesis and differ considerably in their biological behavior in terms of aggression and capacity to spread (metastasis). This could be attributed to the nature of their epithelium and alteration in the cell cycle control. Hence this study is done to compare an odontogenic cyst dentigerous cyst (DC) and odontogenic tumor (Ameloblastoma) with a panel of immunohistochemical markers including cytokeratin (CK) 14 and 19, p53, p63, Ki67 to explain for the differences between the two. Materials and Methods: IHC was performed with the above mentioned markers with five cases each of DC and ameloblastoma. Results: The mean scores of each of the marker used were found to be significantly higher in ameloblastoma in comparison to DC. Conclusion: The study confirms that considerable difference exists between these two lesions in terms of their clinical characters and biologic behavior. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis with the combination of the markers used in this study may be useful in differentiating DC and ameloblastoma.
  2,217 378 -
Dentigerous cyst with an ectopically erupted supernumerary tooth in maxillary sinus
Ramesh Srinivasan, Usha Giridhar Varadarajan
October-December 2012, 3(4):264-267
An ectopically erupted tooth in the maxillary sinus presents itself as a confounding problem, which may lead tomaxillary sinusitis. A case of a cyst associated with an ectopic supernumerary tooth in the left maxillary sinus cavity is presented, which is of interest as it has been very rarely documented. Investigations like computed tomography and orthopantamograph were carried out to confirm the extent of the lesion, and the management of the cyst was done by a high vestibular approach. The tooth was removed, cyst was enucleated, wound was closed, Specimen was sent for histopathological examination, and biopsy report confirmed the same. A detailed discussion has been done in relation to the case presented.
  1,502 206 -
Recreating the missing smile: A case report on ectodermal dysplasia
R Shakila, L Jeevanandam, SK Jagdish, VR Arun Kumar
October-December 2012, 3(4):271-274
Ectodermal dysplasia syndrome is a group of hereditary disorders affecting the structures developing from the ectoderm. More than 150 different types have been described with the most common being the hypohidrotic and the hidrotic types. Complete or partial anodontia, trichodysplasia, onychodysplasia, and dyshidrosis are the major symptoms of this condition. Prosthetic treatment often involves replacement of the congenitally missing teeth. This article describes a case report on prosthetic management of an ectodermal dysplasia patient.
  1,399 181 -
Rhinosinusitis, a common cause of dental pain
Sonal Saigal, Shruti Sial, Ankur Bhargava
October-December 2012, 3(4):247-250
Rhinosinusitis is a more accurate term for what is commonly termed sinusitis, because the mucous membranes of the nose and sinuses are contiguous and subject to the same disease processes. It is a significant and increasing health problem that affects about 15% of the population in Western countries. It has a substantial impact on patients health related quality of life and daily functioning and represents a huge financial burden to society and the health care system as a result of the direct and indirect costs therefore the high incidence of this pathology reveals the need to recognize it as an important disease we have to be able to deal with in order to prevent it or even treat it whenever necessary. In this article, we provide an overview of Rhinosinusitis, including its classification, etiopathogenesis, staging and focusing over its diagnostic modalities.
  1,323 187 -
Multiple impacted teeth in a non-syndromic patient
Yadavalli Guruprasad, Raghavendra Mahadev Naik
October-December 2012, 3(4):279-280
  1,224 196 -