Print this page Email this page | Users Online: 147
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 151-156

Assessment of the relative efficacy of fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide in the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization: An ex vivo study


1 Senior Lecturer, Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Pacific Dental College, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, D. A. Pandu Memorial RV Dental College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Date of Submission05-Aug-2022
Date of Decision05-Nov-2022
Date of Acceptance05-Nov-2022
Date of Web Publication15-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. R V Remi
D/o Shri C. Ravi Raj Kumar, First World Print Pack LLP, Plot No. 5D, 19/6, Mathura Road, Faridabad - 121 006, Haryana
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_101_22

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background: During the cariogenic challenges, the anticaries action of fluoride is limited by the bioavailability of calcium and phosphate in saliva. This mandates the use of additional extrinsic sources of calcium and phosphate to enhance the anticaries potential of fluoride. Aim: This study aimed to assess and compare the efficacy of fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide in the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization. Materials and Methods: Sixty samples were obtained from 15 extracted primary second molars and allocated to one of four groups: Group A for baseline Vickers hardness testing, Group B was subjected to demineralization only, Group C was treated with fluoridated toothpaste solution, and Group D was treated with fluoridated toothpaste and chicken eggshell powder solution. Surface microhardness and the amount of calcium that was leached into the demineralizing solutions of groups B, C, and D were statistically assessed after 7 days of pH cycling. Results: The mean Vickers hardness values of groups A, B, C, and D were 402.68, 366.28, 392.79, and 395.27, respectively. The mean calcium concentration released into demineralizing solution of groups B, C, and D were 35.52, 29.12, and 27.12, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell powder. Conclusion: Both fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide were equally effective in the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization.

Keywords: Chicken eggshell powder, fluoridated toothpaste, microhardness, prevention of demineralization, primary tooth


How to cite this article:
Remi R V, Shankarappa PR, Anantharaj A, Praveen P, Sudhir R. Assessment of the relative efficacy of fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide in the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization: An ex vivo study. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2022;13:151-6

How to cite this URL:
Remi R V, Shankarappa PR, Anantharaj A, Praveen P, Sudhir R. Assessment of the relative efficacy of fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide in the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization: An ex vivo study. SRM J Res Dent Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 6];13:151-6. Available from: https://www.srmjrds.in/text.asp?2022/13/4/151/363793


  Introduction Top


The bioavailability of calcium and phosphate in the saliva is crucial for the anticaries action of fluoride, especially during cariogenic challenges.[1] However, the natural caries protective and remineralizing effects of saliva are not only a slow process but obviously insufficient to protect individuals against caries and remineralize existing lesions.[2] Despite the availability of several remineralizing agents for the treatment of carious lesions such as fluoride, casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, xylitol, and dental caries prevalence in children continues to increase globally.[3] Therefore, newer caries preventive formulations providing additional calcium and phosphate ions are needed to enhance the preventive potential of saliva.

Chicken eggshell powder (CESP) with rich calcium bioavailability has emerged as a gold mine of opportunities in various fields. Researchers have reported CESP as a safe osteoconductive bone substitute for the regeneration of maxillofacial defects.[4],[5] Calcined CESP with its easy bioavailability and natural source of calcium and phosphate has proved to be a potential remineralizing agent. When the remineralizing potential of CESP solution was compared with Clinpro, both were found to favor remineralization.[6],[7]

However, there is a paucity of studies assessing the efficacy of CESP as anti-demineralizing agent in primary teeth. Hence, the current study aimed at assessing and comparing the effect of child formula fluoridated toothpaste on adding eggshell powder on the demineralization of primary tooth enamel.


  Materials and Methods Top


Study design

The present ex vivo experimental study was approved by the Research Sustenance and Institutional Review Board Committee on November 07, 2019 (IRB No.: 341/VOL-2/2019). All the participants provided written informed consent for participation in the study. All procedures performed in the study were conducted in accordance with the ethical standards given in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, as revised in 2013.

Study setting

Fifteen noncarious primary second molars with intact crown structure were extracted from pediatric patients of the age group 10–12 years, who visited the Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, D. A. Pandu Memorial R. V. Dental College, Bengaluru.

Participants

Sound and noncarious primary teeth were included in this study, whereas those with caries, hypoplasia, discoloration, and white spots were excluded from the study.

Study size

The estimation of sample size was done using the GPower software v. 3.1.9.4. Effect size f, α err prob, and power (1-β err prob) for four groups were 0.56, 0.05, and 0.80, respectively. Noncentrality parameter λ, critical F, numerator df, denominator df, and actual power were 12.5440000, 2.8662656, 3, 36, and 0.8134546, respectively. The sample size has been estimated considering the effect size to be measured (f) at 56%, power of the study at 80%, the margin of the error at 5%, and the total sample size needed for this study was 60. Each group consisted of 15 samples (15 × 4 groups = 60 samples).

Preparation of chicken eggshell powder

The CESP was produced through calcination in accordance with the instructions provided by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WO/2004/105912: Method of generating eggshell powder). To create pure powder devoid of pathogens and raise the alkalinity of the powder, calcination was used. Normal CESP includes 95% calcium carbonate, which on calcination transforms into basic calcium oxide and causes a rise in alkalinity.

The contents of chicken eggs were removed and the eggshells were cleaned in distilled water. The membrane was then taken off the eggshells after they had been in a hot water bath at 100°C for 10 min. These eggshells were calcined in a muffle furnace at the Central Silk Technological Research Institute, Bengaluru, between 300°C and 1000°C at a heating rate of 10°C/min. Calcined eggshells were powdered to small particles and crushed using a sterile mortar and pestle.

Preparation of toothpaste solution

Fluoridated toothpaste solution was prepared by mixing 12 g of child formula fluoridated toothpaste (KIDODENT 500 ppm F in form of sodium monofluorophosphate [SMFP]) with 36 mL of distilled water. The mixture was stirred and agitated for 1 min followed by centrifugation at 3500 rpm for 20 min at room temperature.[8] The sediment of centrifuged slurries was discarded and the supernatant was used as a treatment solution.

A mixture of 1 g eggshell powder and pediatric toothpaste slurry was centrifuged to obtain the solution of fluoridated toothpaste and CESP.

Sample preparation

Before the experiment, the obtained teeth were disinfected with 10% formalin and kept in distilled water. At the cementoenamel junction, teeth were decoronated. With a double-sided diamond disc mounted on a straight handpiece, each decoroned tooth was then longitudinally sectioned, first in a mesiodistal direction and subsequently in a buccolingual direction, yielding four samples from a single tooth as shown in [Figure 1]. Each sample was coated with acid-resistant nail polish, leaving an enamel window of 3 mm × 3 mm. The samples from each tooth were allocated to one of four groups as follows:
Figure 1: Guidelines for sectioning of each tooth

Click here to view


  • Group A: For baseline measurement
  • Group B: Demineralization only (negative control)
  • Group C: Treated with fluoridated toothpaste solution followed by demineralization
  • Group D: Treated with fluoridated toothpaste and CESP solution followed by demineralization.


The demineralizing solution of pH 4.5 was prepared by the addition of 1.5 mM of CaCl2, 0.9 mM of KH2PO4, 50 mM of acetic acid, and 0.002% of NaN3. 0.9 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.15 M potassium chloride, 0.4% carboxymethyl cellulose, 6% sorbitol, 0.2% nipagin, and distilled deionized water were used to create artificial saliva with a pH of 7.4.

The samples in each group were subjected to pH cycling as shown in [Figure 2], which was repeated for 7 days.
Figure 2: pH cycling performed on each day of the experiment

Click here to view


Vickers surface microhardness analysis

After 7 days, the tooth sections in groups A, B, C, and D were analyzed for surface microhardness (SMH) using Vickers SMH tester. Vickers indenter with a load of 100 gF was applied for 10 s on the enamel surface.

Calcium level estimation in the demineralizing solution

The baseline calcium level in the demineralizing solution was evaluated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. After 7 days, the demineralizing solutions of groups B, C, and D were subjected to flame atomic absorption spectroscopy[9] to determine the amount of calcium leached into the demineralizing solution.

Statistical methods

The mean Vickers microhardness values of the four groups and the mean calcium concentration released into the demineralizing solution from the three groups were compared using a one-way analysis of the variance test and Tukey's honest significant difference post hoc analysis. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows Version 22.0 Released 2013. Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp. was used to perform statistical analyses. The level of significance (P) was set at P < 0.05.


  Results Top


The test results demonstrated that enamel sections in Group D (pretreated with fluoridated toothpaste and CESP) had a higher mean Vickers hardness value than Group C (pretreated with fluoridated toothpaste) [Figure 3]. Between groups B and D, there was a highly significant difference (P < 0.001), and between groups B and C, there was a significant difference (P = 0.001). Between groups C and D, there was, however, no statistically significant difference (P = 0.982) [Table 1]. The mean calcium concentration leached from specimens of groups B, C, and D into demineralizing solution did not show statistically significant difference (P = 0.062) [Table 2] and [Table 3].
Figure 3: Mean Vickers hardness values in different groups after pH cycling

Click here to view
Table 1: Intergroup comparison of mean Vickers hardness values between groups after pH cycling

Click here to view
Table 2: Mean calcium concentration released into demineralizing solution after pH cycling

Click here to view
Table 3: Intergroup comparison of mean calcium concentration released into demineralizing solution of three groups after pH cycling

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The recent trend toward preventive rather than the surgical approach of caries management focuses on the prevention of the occurrence of demineralization to maintain the integrity and function of primary dentition.[10] Fluoride prevents caries at the tooth/plaque interface by encouraging the remineralization of early lesions and lowering the solubility of tooth enamel.[11] In our study, enamel samples pretreated with fluoridated toothpaste showed a significantly higher mean Vickers hardness (392.79 ± 14.48) as compared to demineralized samples (366.28 ± 27.35). The fluorapatite (FAP) and calcium fluoride (CaF2)-like precipitates that form on the enamel and in the plaque are presumed to be the cause for cariostatic potential of the topical fluoride. The fluoride in enamel fluid is highly adsorbed to the surface of carbonated apatite crystals during the cariogenic process, preventing the crystals from dissolving.[12] Crommelin et al. observed almost similar dissolution rate behavior of FAP-coated hydroxyapatite and FAP alone.[13] Therefore, regular low-dose fluoride applications are more efficient than infrequent high-dose applications. Contrarily, during cariogenic challenges, CaF2-like material serves as a pH-driven fluoride and calcium reservoir.[12]

Anticaries efficacy of fluoride is dependent on the bioavailability of calcium and phosphate in saliva, especially at lower pH.[1] To overcome this, a formulation with calcium and/or phosphate releasing and pH buffering properties might be helpful in enhancing the preventive potential of saliva as well as fluoride therapy, thus preventing enamel demineralization.

Few experimental studies have assessed the anti-demineralizing efficacy of fluoride in conjunction with calcium-containing products. CESP with rich bioavailable calcium and increased alkalinity seems to be a feasible option.[6],[7] The protective effect of CESP against erosive enamel loss was evident from the increase in microhardness and reduction in surface roughness.[14],[15] In our study, the use of calcined CESP along with fluoridated toothpaste has resulted in a significantly higher mean Vickers hardness (395.27 ± 14.36) as compared to demineralized ones (366.28 ± 27.35). This can be reasoned by the ability of CESP in maintaining supersaturation of saliva and biofilm fluid with respect to tooth minerals and keeping pH above the critical value of 5.5. Amaechi recommended the use of sound teeth in "demineralization" model of pH cycling to test the ability of investigational products to prevent caries development. Demineralization model of pH cycling was used in the present study.[16]

In our study, the Vickers microhardness test was used to gauge the enamel's surface hardness. The square-shaped indentation left behind by the Vickers indenter on a textured surface is visible and can serve as an indirect indicator of mineral loss or gain.[17],[18] Enamel samples pretreated with fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide showed resistance to demineralization, which can be explained by the stable SMFP dentifrice used in our study. The covalent bond between fluoride and phosphate ions in SMFP is more compatible with calcium-containing agents as compared to sodium fluoride and stannous fluoride.[19] Damle et al. found that over 18 months, the mean decayed missing and filled teeth and decayed missing and filled tooth surfaces values in the control (nonfluoride) group increased statistically significantly more than those in the test group (sodium monofluorophosphate + calcium glycerophosphate).[20] In contrast, Parkinson et al. found no statistically significant difference in the percentage of SMH recovery between 927 ppm F with or without 5% calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS), indicating that CSPS had no positive or negative effects on fluoride's ability to affect the mineralization of surface-softened and subsurface caries lesions.[21]

After 7 days of pH cycling, the calcium concentration in the demineralization solution was measured to determine the degree of demineralization. There was no statistically significant difference in the amount of calcium lost between the experimental and demineralized groups in our study. This can be attributed to the fact that at critical pH subsurface dissolution of hydroxyapatite occurs while the fluoride adsorption onto the enamel surface forms fluorhydroxyapatite. With time, fluorhydroxyapatite forms the protective surface layer at the expense of subsurface hydroxyapatite. Lale et al. reported that fluoridated as well as nonfluoridated toothpaste exhibited weaker preventive effects against the occurrence of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment.[22] In contrast to SMFP alone, Burwell and Greenspan. found that SMFP + calcium sodium phospho solutions aided to prevent microhardness decrease when enamel was exposed to citric acid at pH 2.5.[23] The difference in the methodology used in the above-mentioned studies may be the reason for these conflicting results.

A direct comparison of the present findings cannot be made due to the lack of reports in the literature comparing the products evaluated in our study. Thus, this study could be considered a standalone study evaluating the effect of fluoridated dentifrice with or without CESP pretreatment on microhardness of enamel. The main limitation of our study is that like any other in vitro study, it could hardly imitate the dynamic complex biological system of the oral environment (especially within the dental plaque milieu). Significant changes can be expected from the experimental slurries if carried out for a longer duration in an in vivo model.


  Conclusion Top


Both fluoridated toothpaste with and without eggshell-derived calcium oxide were equally effective in the prevention of primary tooth enamel demineralization. CESP can be considered an option for a routine oral hygiene regimen. Further long-term in vitro studies using qualitative analysis (such as scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray) are recommended to confirm these results.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to thank the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, for the help provided during the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Sim C, Walker GD, Manton DJ, Soong YL, Wee J, Adams GG, et al. Anticariogenic efficacy of a saliva biomimetic in head-and-neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Aust Dent J 2019;64:47-54.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Amaechi BT, AbdulAzees PA, Alshareif DO, Shehata MA, Lima PP, Abdollahi A, et al. Comparative efficacy of a hydroxyapatite and a fluoride toothpaste for prevention and remineralization of dental caries in children. BDJ Open 2019;5:18.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Kazeminia M, Abdi A, Shohaimi S, Jalali R, Vaisi-Raygani A, Salari N, et al. Dental caries in primary and permanent teeth in children's worldwide, 1995 to 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Head Face Med 2020;16:22.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mony B, Ebenezar AV, Ghani MF, Narayanan A, Ashwin S, Mohan AG. Effect of chicken egg shell powder solution on early enamel carious lesions: An in vitro preliminary study. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:C30-2.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kavarthapu A, Malaiappan S. Comparative evaluation of demineralized bone matrix and type II collagen membrane versus eggshell powder as a graft material and membrane in rat model. Indian Journal of Dental Research 2019;30:877-80.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Al Nashar A, Daoud A. Evaluation of the activity of hen eggshell graft in experimentally induced mandibular defects in rabbits: pilot study. Int J Res Med Sci 2019;7:1133-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kattimani VS, Chakravarthi PS, Kanumuru NR, Subbarao VV, Sidharthan A, Kumar TS, et al. Eggshell derived hydroxyapatite as bone graft substitute in the healing of maxillary cystic bone defects: A preliminary report. J Int Oral Health 2014;6:15-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kasemkhun P, Rirattanapong P. The efficacy of non-fluoridated toothpastes on artificial enamel caries in primary teeth: An in vitro study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2021;11:397-401.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Chanda S, Das S, Paul B, Singh P, Giri S. Mineral assay in atomic absorption spectroscopy. Beats Nat Sci 2014;1:1-17.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Yon MJ, Gao SS, Chen KJ, Duangthip D, Lo EC, Chu CH. Medical model in caries management. Dent J (Basel) 2019;7:37.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Philip N. State of the art enamel remineralization systems: The next frontier in caries management. Caries Res 2019;53:284-95.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Goldberg M. Fluoride: Double-Edged sword implicated in caries prevention and in fluorosis. J Cell Dev Biol 2018;1:10-22.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Crommelin DJ, Higuchi WI, Fox JL, Spooner PJ, Katdare AV. Dissolution rate behavior of hydroxyapatite-fluorapatite mixtures. Caries Res 1983;17:289-96.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Feroz S, Moeen F, Nisar S. Protective effect of Chicken Egg Shell Powder solution (CESP) on artificially induced dental Erosion: An in vitro atomic force microscope study. Int J Dent Sci Res 2017;5:49-55.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Shatha AA, Alhan AQ. The effect of chicken eggshell extract on microhardness of artificially induced dental erosion in permanent teeth (in vitro study). J Res Med Dent Sci 2020;8:42-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Amaechi BT. Protocols to study dental caries in vitro: PH cycling models. Methods Mol Biol 2019;1922:379-92.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Sahiti JS, Krishna NV, Prasad SD, Kumar CS, Kumar SS, Babu KS. Comparative evaluation of enamel microhardness after using two different remineralizing agents on artificially demineralized human enamel: An in vitro study. J Clin Transl Res 2020;6:87-91.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Massoud S, Moussa S, Hanafy S, Elbackly R. Evaluation of the microhardness of root canal dentin after different irrigation protocols (in vitro study). Alex Dent J 2017;42:73-79.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Fiorillo L, Cervino G, Herford AS, Laino L, Cicciù M. Stannous fluoride effects on enamel: A systematic review. Biomimetics (Basel) 2020;5:41.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Damle SG, Deoyani D, Bhattal H, Yadav R, Lomba A. Comparative efficacy of dentifrice containing sodium monofluorophosphate+calcium glycerophosphate and non-fluoridated dentifrice: A randomized, double-blind, prospective study. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012;9:68-73.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Parkinson CR, Siddiqi M, Mason S, Lippert F, Hara AT, Zero DT. Anticaries potential of a sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice containing calcium sodium phosphosilicate: Exploratory in situ randomized trial. Caries Res 2017;51:170-8.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Lale S, Solak H, Hınçal E, Vahdettin L. In vitro comparison of fluoride, magnesium, and calcium phosphate materials on prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets. Biomed Res Int 2020;2020:1989817.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Burwell AK, Greenspan D. Potential for dentifrice protection against enamel erosion in an in vitro model. Caries Res 2007;41:268-334.  Back to cited text no. 23
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed396    
    Printed18    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded66    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal