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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 150-152

Prevalence of dental caries of in vitro fertilization children of West Bengal evaluated with caries assessment spectrum and treatment


Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Science and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Date of Web Publication22-Aug-2016

Correspondence Address:
Sudipta Kar
21F, Charakdanga Road, Uttarpara, Hooghly - 712 258, West Bengal
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0976-433X.188801

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  Abstract 

Context: Caries is one of the devastating problems affecting the dental hard tissue structure. It may infect both spontaneously conceived and in vitro fertilization (IVF) children. Aims: This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries status affecting deciduous, mixed, and permanent dentition of IVF and spontaneously conceived children of West Bengal utilizing caries assessment spectrum and treatment (CAST). Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional case-control study of dental caries status of 3–14-year-old children were evaluated. The case group consisted of term, singleton babies who were the consequence of IVF in the studied area in 2012–2013. Subjects and Methods: The control group was consisted of term, first child, singleton, and spontaneously conceived 3–14-year-old children who were also a resident of our mentioned studied area. A sample of 351 IVF and 351 spontaneously conceived children was examined. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square tests or Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference found in studied, i.e., IVF children and control group, i.e. spontaneously conceived children. Conclusions: IVF children are considered better than spontaneously conceived children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated through CAST.

Keywords: Caries assessment spectrum and treatment, dental caries in vitro fertilization, prevalence


How to cite this article:
Kar S, Mitra M. Prevalence of dental caries of in vitro fertilization children of West Bengal evaluated with caries assessment spectrum and treatment. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2016;7:150-2

How to cite this URL:
Kar S, Mitra M. Prevalence of dental caries of in vitro fertilization children of West Bengal evaluated with caries assessment spectrum and treatment. SRM J Res Dent Sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2021 Jan 15];7:150-2. Available from: https://www.srmjrds.in/text.asp?2016/7/3/150/188801


  Introduction Top


Dental caries is nowadays recognized as a completely reversible and preventable disease of dental hard tissues if it is diagnosed at an early noncavitated stage.[1] The innovation of “caries assessment spectrum and treatment” (CAST)[2] was done by incorporating benefits of ICDAS,[3] PUFA,[4] and the DMF index by researchers of University of Brasília, Brazil and Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre of The Netherlands. Dental caries is a disease which affects different people to varying degrees. The first ever in vitro fertilization (IVF) birth occurred on July 25, 1978, on Oldham, England. This birth was the result of the innovative work of Steptoe and Edwards.[5] On 3rd October in the same year the birth of world's 2nd test tube baby named Durga was born as a result of team work done by respected Dr. Subhas Mukherjee and respected Dr. Saroj Bhattacharya [6] in Kolkata, West Bengal. Till date, IVF plays an important role in the history of modern reproductive sciences. Dental caries may affect IVF children in a similar manner also.


  Subjects and Methods Top


A descriptive, analytic, cross-sectional study approved by the Ethical Committee of Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Science and Research was accomplished. Dental caries status of 3–14 years old children were evaluated. The children in both case (IVF) and control (spontaneously conceived) groups based on the route of pregnancy were enrolled for the entire course of present study. Specific inclusion criteria of sample selection were - (1) gestational age of the baby must be 37–42 weeks, (2) singleton babies were preferred, (3) only first children were selected for study purpose, (4) medium and high socioeconomic condition of the family. Exclusion criteria of sample selection were – (1) parent having a history of multiple pregnancy, (2) congenitally malformed children, (3) children having genetic syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities, (4) children having severe asphyxia were excluded from this study. Confounding variables of this study were food habit of the children parental care, social upbringing of the children, and different behavioral pattern of individual child. The case group consisted of term (gestational age of the babies were 37–42 weeks), singleton babies whom were end result of IVF of the studied area and were chosen by a computer generated random number list. The control group constitutes of term, first child, singleton, and spontaneously conceived 3–14-year-old children whom were referred to the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry for the purpose of initial dental health check-up. Case and control studied individual were matched for the year of birth, maternal weight, maternal age, socioeconomic status area of residence and gestational age. Multiple pregnancies, severe asphyxia, children with major congenital malformations, chromosomal abnormalities, and genetic syndromes were excluded from the sample. To exclude inter-observer error all measurements were made by a trained single examiner who was not informed about the birth status of our studied samples. The study was conducted after informed consent was procured from the concerned authorities and guardians of children. A total of 837 parents of studied samples were approached to participate in our present study. Out of the above total sample, the parents of 351 IVF and 351 spontaneously agreed to participate in this study [Table 1] and [Table 2]. After informed consents were collected from the parents, all children were examined for dental caries using sterile mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination. All subjects were examined in the supine position. A well-structured and validated history sheet was used for proper documentation, but the caries assessment was not graded before the study. Before examination, each tooth was wiped with a sterile cotton roll to get a dry surface for proper evaluation. Statistical analysis was executed using Chi-square tests or Z-test.
Table 1: Sex wise distribution of IVF children and spontaneously conceived children

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Table 2: Caries status of IVF children and spontaneously conceived children

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  Results Top


During comparison of sound tooth structure category, Z-score was 4.9749 (P = 0.00). The result was significant at P < 0.05. During comparison of carious involvement Z- score was −4.9749 (P = 0.00). The result was significant at P < 0.05. During the comparison of sealed tooth category Z-score was −0.3799 (P = 0.70394). The result was not significant at P < 0.05. During comparison of restored tooth category Z-score was −1.6198 (P = 0.10524). The result was not significant at P < 0.05. During comparison of distinct visual change in enamel category Z-score was −2.349 (P = 0.01878). The result was significant at P < 0.05. During the comparison of internal caries-related discoloration in dentine category Z-score was −2.1273 (P = 0.03318). The result was significant at P < 0.05. During comparison of distinct cavitation into dentine category Z-score was −1.0065 (P = 0.3125). The result was not significant at P < 0.05. During comparison of Involvement of pulp chamber, category Z-score was −1.5195 (P = 0.12852). The result was not significant at P < 0.05. During comparison of abscess/fistula category Z-score was −1.8993 (P = 0.05744). The result was not significant at P < 0.05. During comparison of lost (due to caries) category Z-score was −2.1273 (P = 0.03318). The result was significant at P < 0.05 [Table 3] and [Table 4].
Table 3: Prevalence of total spectrum of dental caries of IVF children

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Table 4: Prevalence of total spectrum of dental caries of spontaneously conceived children

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  Discussion Top


Dental caries is a complex disease affecting tooth structure mainly caused by an imbalance between demineralization and remineralisation process around the tooth surface. Till date, no study was found on dental caries of IVF children using a new caries detection tool - CAST. This was probably the first study on CAST, which demonstrates caries prevalence in IVF children of West Bengal. In the present study, 94.01% and 81.76% cases of sound teeth were found in IVF and spontaneously conceived children respectively, and the result is statistically significant (Z-score is 4.9749). 5.98% of caries effected IVF children found in this study instead of 18.24% in spontaneously conceived children, and the result is also statistically significant. The reasons for this observation may be the parents of IVF children are more serious and conscious about their beloved baby and take more care and precaution, and practices good oral health maintenance regularly. Moreover as all the IVF families of this study were from socioeconomically and educationally above average strata; they are probably more concerned in respect to their baby's general and oral health status. Statistically significant results also found in distinct visual change in enamel category, internal caries-related discoloration in dentine category and loss of tooth due to caries category. Statistically in-significant results are found in rest of the categories. No previous study was found involving IVF children in this unexplored field. Hence, no comparison was possible with the previous study.


  Conclusions Top


In this study, IVF children expressing dissimilar kind of dental caries pattern than spontaneously conceived children. IVF children are considered better than spontaneously conceived children when studied in relation to dental caries status. This study invites further scope for cross-sectional and longitudinal study for the upcoming researcher. Hopefully this kind of study will bring positive assurance to numerous parents of IVF children in the world.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Featherstone JD. Caries prevention and reversal based on the caries balance. Pediatr Dent 2006;28:128-32.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Frencken JE, de Amorim RG, Faber J, Leal SC. The caries assessment spectrum and treatment (CAST) index: Rational and development. Int Dent J 2011;61:117-23.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
de Amorim RG, Figueiredo MJ, Leal SC, Mulder J, Frencken JE. Caries experience in a child population in a deprived area of Brazil, using ICDAS II. Clin Oral Investig 2012;16:513-20.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Monse B, Heinrich-Weltzien R, Benzian H, Holmgren C, van Palenstein Helderman W. PUFA – An index of clinical consequences of untreated dental caries. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010;38:77-82.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Steptoe PC, Edwards RG. Birth after the reimplantation of a human embryo. Lancet 1978;2:366.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Chakraborty BN. Test Tube Baby Procedures Miracles, Mysteries and Miseries. 1st ed. Kolkata: The Standard Literature Company Pvt. Ltd.; 2005. p. 1-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Subjects and Methods
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
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