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   2019| April-June  | Volume 10 | Issue 2  
    Online since July 9, 2019

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Oral squamous cell carcinoma under microscopic vision: A review of histological variants and its prognostic indicators
Sahanaz Praveen Ahmed, Lekshmy Jayan, Thayalan Dineshkumar, Swarnalakshmi Raman
April-June 2019, 10(2):90-97
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) entails quite noteworthy morbidity and mortality rates instead of immense amount of research and advances. Conventional OSCC can present as several variants that make up in aggregate about 10%–15% of all squamous cell carcinomas. Variants of OSCC frequently arise within the oral cavity. Accurate histopathological identification can assist the clinician to plan a precise treatment, as the prognosis of each of them differs extensively. The overall 5-year survival rate following treatment for OSCC is around 50% in most cases. The foremost prognostic elements are mode of invasion, surgical margins, incidence of lymph node metastasis, extracapsular spread, invasive tumor front grade, and clinical and histologic parameters, which are strongly linked with survival rate. Grading by gross histological differentiation does not influence prognosis, unless deeply invasive margins are evaluated by the pathologist. This review focused on the histopathological variants of OSCC with emphasis on prognostic and predictive indices together with molecular factors linked with survival and prognosis of OSCC patients. Hence, it is advised to use the amalgamation of both clinical and pathological indicators to assess the prognosis.
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Successful endodontic management of endo-perio lesions with different treatment modalities: Case series
Vijetha Vishwanath, H Murali Rao, BS Keshava Prasad, K Shashikala
April-June 2019, 10(2):105-109
Diagnosis and management of endo-perio lesions differ from those lesions of single causative factor. These present signs and symptoms, which cannot be easily attributed or accounted for, require more detailed examination and definitive treatment plan. The outcomes are not readily predictable as of lesions of single origin. Distinguishing the primary etiological factor and overlapping secondary clinical features require thorough knowledge and understanding of the pathology, anatomy, and microbiology with respect to the teeth involved. The primary and secondary etiological factors can have numerous variations and hence makes arriving at a definitive treatment plan complex. However systematic examination combined with relevant investigations always provides a correct direction toward optimum treatment plan. This article presents four cases of endo-perio lesions and their successful management by different treatment modalities.
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AZODO suture: A simple periodontal pocket reduction treatment technique
Clement C Azodo
April-June 2019, 10(2):78-81
AZODO suture is a simple, easy, success-oriented periodontal pocket reduction and gingival papilla reconstruction procedure. It starts with obtaining informed consent for the procedure followed by scaling, root planing, and curettage of the diseased pocket and then by an interrupted suture with polyglycolic resorbable suture. When the pockets on two adjacent teeth exist, a modification (MODIFIED AZODO suture) in the form of horizontal mattress suturing technique is used. The hypothesized mechanism of action is that the suturing of the gingiva apposes the facial and lingual side of the interdental gingiva with the tissues filling the interdental space-generating pressure that facilitates the apposition of the gingiva on the distal/mesial surfaces of the tooth with pocket. The consequent tissue modeling facilitates a proper interdental papilla. This prevents food impaction, ensures cleanliness, facilitates healing, and restores the interdental health.
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Antibacterial effect of Cissus quadrangularis against cariogenic microorganisms: An in vitro study
B Kesavaraj, Sharath Asokan, PR GeethaPriya, V Vijayasankari, S Rubavathi
April-June 2019, 10(2):57-60
Aim: The aim is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) extract and calcium hydroxide against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of CQ was obtained by Soxhlet method. The antibacterial activity of CQ extract and calcium hydroxide powder in three different solvents (saline, glycerol, and olive oil) was evaluated by agar well-diffusion method. The zones of inhibition formed against S. mutans and L. acidophilus were measured. Results: CQ in saline showed zone of inhibition against both S. mutans and L. acidophilus, whereas in olive oil, zone of inhibition was evident only against L. acidophilus. Calcium hydroxide exhibited zone of inhibition against S. mutans when dissolved in saline and glycerol. On the other hand, zone of inhibition against L. acidophilus was evident only in glycerol. Calcium hydroxide showed maximum zone of inhibition against both the microorganisms compared to CQ. Conclusion: CQ showed antibacterial activity against both S. mutans and L. acidophilus, but it was not comparable to calcium hydroxide.
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Phytotherapeutics in the management of periodontal disease - A review
Prakash G Pai, MM Dayakar, Anjali R Nath, G Ashwini
April-June 2019, 10(2):82-89
Phytotherapy is the usage of herbal species with medicinal properties for the management of various diseases. Gingivitis and periodontitis are diseases that involve the role of both the bacteria and the host immune response. Over the years, various researches have shown the importance of herbal products in the management of periodontal diseases. Plants have phytochemicals such as alkaloids, essential oils, flavonoids, and tannins that have strong antimicrobial activity and used as an anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, and antioxidative agents. The aim of this review is to provide the current literature to validate the traditional use of medicinal plants in the management of periodontal diseases.
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Prevalence of early childhood caries and associated risk factors in 2–6-year-old children of North East Delhi attending anganwadis: A cross-sectional study
Gaurav Panwar, Namita Kalra, Rishi Tyagi, Amit Khatri, Kopal Garg
April-June 2019, 10(2):65-71
Aims: This study was conducted to find out: (a) the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in 2–6-year-old children of North East Delhi attending Anganwadis. (b) The association, if any, between known risk factors and ECC. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 4012 to 6-year-old children of North East Delhi attending Anganwadis. Materials and Methods: A total of 401 children were clinically examined and their dental caries status was measured by the decayed, missing, filled surface (dmfs) index for deciduous teeth given by the WHO, Oral Health Surveys, Basic Method (2013). Structured questionnaires for the mother/caretaker of the children were used to gather information regarding their age, birth weight, feeding habits, oral hygiene practices, etc. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis involved the Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of ECC and severe ECC was 38.4% and 22.9%, respectively. The mean dmfs was 2.89 ± 5.89. The prevalence of ECC was statistically high in children involved in maternal sharing of utensils (odds ratio = 6.41; 95% confidence interval = 3.61–11.38). Age, increased frequency of between meal snacking, increased frequency of eating sweets and chocolates, low birthweight, and fell asleep with the nipple of milk bottle in the mouth also emerged out as risk indicators for ECC in logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: The prevalence of ECC in Anganwadi children was high and all the dmfs was due to untreated caries. This suggests the paucity of awareness among the studied population. Treatment along with the extensive preventive program in these young children is immensely required.
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Evaluation of treatment outcome after impacted mandibular third molar surgery with and without autologous platelet concentrates
Sauvik Singha, Rajesh B Dhirawani, Sumit Asrani, Anshalika Agrawal, Jay Taank
April-June 2019, 10(2):72-77
Aim and Objective: The prospective study was conducted to assess the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in healing of soft tissue after the surgical extraction of mandibular-impacted third molars. The main objective of the study was to compare clinical parameters and especially the postoperative pain, swelling, interincisal distance, wound dehiscence, dry socket, soft tissue healing, and infection. Materials and Methods: 300 patients having impacted mandibular third molar were included in this study. They were selected on the OPD basis at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Patients were divided into Group A treated with PRP and Group B treated with PRF. Result and Conclusion: The study indicates faster healing with no untoward reaction on PRP and PRF group. Platelet concentrates especially PRF in extracted third molar socket give excellent enhancement in wound healing with lesser postoperative complication.
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Calcifying odontogenic cyst: Report of a case with unique features
Firoz Kamal, Manasa Deepthi, Vandana Raghunath
April-June 2019, 10(2):110-115
The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) was first categorized as a distinct entity by Gorlin et al. in 1962. It appears as a cyst lined by an ameloblastic epithelium, containing variable amounts of ghost cells and calcifications. Being a rare developmental odontogenic cyst, it accounts for about 1% of all odontogenic cysts (Shear, 1994) and represents about <6% of all odontogenic lesions. COC mimics other odontogenic cysts clinically as well as radiologically, and a definitive diagnosis can be made only by histological means. This article describes a case of COC, which presented as an anterior mandibular swelling in a 40-year-old female patient. Histologically, the presence of innumerable ghost cells with extensive areas of the partly calcifying eosinophilic matrix (suggestive of dentinoid) abutting the masses of ghost cells and the odontogenic epithelial component, set it apart from the usual histopathological findings.
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Correlation of periodontal status with perceived stress scale score and cortisol levels among transgenders in Puducherry and Cuddalore
KS Sivaranjani, Pratebha Balu, R Saravana Kumar, Jananni Muthu, S Sakthi Devi, V Priyadharshini
April-June 2019, 10(2):61-64
Background: The stigmatization of transgender community can lead to various physical/psychological problems compared to the general population. The social discrimination in the transgender community causes undue stress which disrupts homeostasis and alters the immune system, which is one of the contributing factors to the severity of periodontal problems. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies reported in the transgender community correlating periodontal status with stress in terms of perceived stress scale (PSS) and salivary cortisol levels. Materials and Methods: Periodontal status was assessed in 75 transgender participants in terms of probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). Stress scores were assessed by means of a PSS questionnaire and salivary cortisol levels were estimated by ELISA in 40 participants. Results: The mean PPD and CAL of participants were 4.06 ± 0.70 and 3.97 ± 0.68, respectively. The mean cortisol level of the transgender population was 6.02 ng/mL. The mean PSS score was estimated as 28. Positive correlation of PPD and CAL values with PSS scores (r = 0.592 and r = 0.618, respectively) was observed. Conclusion: There is high perceived stress as per the PSS scale scores and a positive correlation of PSS scale scores with salivary cortisol levels (r = 0.774, P = 0.000) in our study population.
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Ultrasonography – A boon in dentistry
Abhijeet Alok, Shivani Singh, Mallika Kishore, Anjani Kumar Shukla
April-June 2019, 10(2):98-104
In modern times, advanced diagnostic imaging techniques in oral and maxillofacial radiology mainly involve computed tomography (CT), cone-beam CT (CBCT), magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, ultrasonography (USG), xeroradiography, and arthrography to name a few. From the time of its discovery, USG has been used in the field of medicine for the diagnosis of lesions as well as for remedial purpose. USG is a technique based on sound waves that acquire image in real time without the use of ionizing radiation. USG is more diagnostic for soft-tissue lesions than hard-tissue lesions. This article reviews the applications of ultrasound imaging in dentistry.
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