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Calcified stylohyoid ligaments: A diagnostic dilemma
Atul Kaushik, Renu Tanwar, Payal Garg, Monika Kaushik, Rajneesh Panwar, Shobhit Garg
October-December 2012, 3(4):275-278
Calcification or ossification of elongated stylohyoid ligaments is often an incidental finding on radiographs. Abnormal elongation of the styloid process may cause compression of a number of vital nerves and vessels related to it and these symptoms may be confused with other causes of head and neck pain. The diagnosis is often difficult as a result of the vague symptomatology. This paper discusses the pain patterns, clinical presentation, radiologic findings and treatment of elongated calcified stylohyoid ligaments.
  16,718 541 -
Pit and fissure sealants in pediatric dentistry
George Babu, Shanthala Mallikarjun, Bobby Wilson, Chandru Premkumar
October-December 2014, 5(4):253-257
Caries on the occlusal surface of dentition is a significant dental health problem. Molars and premolars are the most vulnerable teeth to caries attack. The high susceptibility of these teeth to caries is directly related to morphology of their occlusal surface. Fluoride's great success in preventing tooth decay on smooth surfaces has made dental caries largely a disease of rough irregularities. Enamel surfaces with pits and fissures receive minimal caries protection from either systemic or topical fluoride agents, the reason for ineffectiveness of fluorides in the pit and fissure caries may be related to the differences in enamel thickness and the inaccessibility of the base of pits and fissures to topical fluorides. The most efficient way to prevent pit and fissure caries is by effectively sealing the fissures using resins called pit and fissure sealants.
  12,940 1,743 -
Biologic width: Concept and violation
M Aishwarya, G Sivaram
October-December 2015, 6(4):250-256
The tooth and its supporting structures should be viewed as one biologic unit. An understanding of the periodontal-restorative relationship is necessary for the proper form, function, and esthetics of restoration and comfort to the patient. The dimension of the space that the healthy gingival tissue occupies above the alveolar crest is known as the biologic width. The concept of biologic width gains importance in the case of extensive caries management, subgingival margin placement, crown/root fractures, orthodontic banding, subgingival perforation and post, and core placement in endodontic therapy. Biologic width is important for the preservation of periodontal health which eventually decides the success of restorative procedures. This article discusses the anatomy, categories, evaluation, violation, and methods to correct the violation of biologic width.
  9,852 1,118 -
Orthodontic challenges in mixed dentition
Diravidamani Kamatchi, Palanivel Vasanthan, Sivalingam Sathesh Kumar
January-March 2015, 6(1):22-28
Orthodontic intervention in the mixed dentition does not always prevent orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition; however, there can be significant advantages to early intervention. Identifying certain problems at an early age offers a possibility either to redirect skeletal growth or to improve the occlusal relationship. The primary objective of managing orthodontic problems in the mixed dentition stage is to intercept or correct malocclusions that would otherwise become progressively more complex in the permanent dentition or result in skeletal anomalies. The purpose of this article is to discuss how to identify and treat such common situations and malocclusions in the mixed dentition that lend themselves to early intervention
  9,318 1,234 1
Surgical and orthodontic management of impacted maxillary canines
Anila Charles, Sangeetha Duraiswamy, R Krishnaraj, Sanjay Jacob
July-September 2012, 3(3):198-203
Impaction of the maxillary canine is a frequently encountered problem in orthodontic practice. Maxillary canines are the most commonly impacted teeth next to the third molars. Alignment of an impacted canine requires a combined surgical and orthodontic approach. Maxillary canines present a high esthetic and functional demand, hence, a precise diagnosis and treatment planning with soft tissue considerations is essential for a favorable and stable outcome. An overview of the etiology, incidence, and diagnosis of the factors affecting the management of impacted maxillary canines, the soft tissue consideration, and various surgical and orthodontic techniques have been discussed.
  8,241 1,119 -
Early invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue
Sharad Vaidya, Charu Kapoor, Neera Ohri
January-March 2013, 4(1):35-38
Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer for both sexes in the general population. Squamous cell carcinoma is defined as "a malignant epithelial neoplasm exhibiting squamous differentiation as characterized by the formation of keratin and/ or the presence of intercellular bridges" (Pindborg et al., 1977).[1] It is the most common neoplasm of the oral cavity. We present a case of oral SCC emphasizing on the invasive nature of the lesion and importance of correct biosy and histopathological examination.
  8,850 301 -
Role of tumor markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma: Review of literature and future consideration
Muralee Mohan Choontharu, Arpit Binda, Smitha Bhat, Sampathila Mahalinga Sharma
October-December 2012, 3(4):251-256
Sensitive and reliable early diagnostic markers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unavailable. Early identification of recurrence for OSCC is also a challenge. This article reviews the recently identified biomarkers for OSCC such as cytokeratins, p53, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), etc., which are of great utility in early diagnosis. In addition, the biomarkers that have been correlated with OSCC tumor malignancy by molecular pathology analysis are also described. This article speaks about selected reaction monitoring (SRM) which might even be applied to monitor differential expression of tumor proteins in blood, saliva, or fresh frozen tissue materials. SRM technique may complement or possibly replace western blotting for biomarker verification and for selection of potential biomarker candidates. This article may help to identify the potential biomarkers for screening and the molecular pathology analysis for high-risk patients of OSCC. Effective screening to identify high-risk patients will allow clinicians to provide an early and appropriate treatment to patients without delay and also reduce the risk of recurrence of OSCC.
  6,972 1,620 2
Characterization of complete denture - 11 Case reports
Suja Joseph, Sebastion Thomas, Suja Mathew, George Jose Cherackal, Alex K George
January-March 2015, 6(1):60-64
Arranging the teeth for complete denture involves specific laid out principles, which are instructed in dental schools. A dentist who graduates from a dental school is expected to be sufficiently trained in the theory and the practice of teeth setting. Whether it is a conventional removable or implant retained complete denture, the principles of teeth setting remain the same. The possible effect is that all dentists may give almost identical complete dentures to their patients. The complete denture patients may be satisfied with what the dentists provides. It is the duty of the dentist to inform the patient that his or her complete dentures can be characterized to suit his/her wish and appearance better. Incorporation of correct tooth size, shade and position has a visual impact on patient's appearance. This will bring out proper harmony and balance between a persons smile and facial design. Meeting patients' expectations by giving importance to their demands is the most important criteria for success. Even though the importance should be given to the patient's choice an operator can take the liberty to arrange the teeth in an esthetic and acceptable form. This will have a positive effect on patient's self-esteem. Each complete denture patient should be evaluated individually, and the dentist should strive to make the complete denture unique to that person. The authors present 11 case reports of complete denture characterizations. Denture characterization provides infinite possibilities for the dentist.
  6,885 965 -
Low-level laser therapy: A biostimulation therapy in periodontics
Snophia Suresh, Satyanarayana Merugu, Nimisha Mithradas, Sivasankari
January-March 2015, 6(1):53-56
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a light source treatment that generates light of a single wavelength. The low-level lasers do not cause temperature elevation within the tissue, but rather produce their effects from photobiostimulation effect within the tissues. Low-level lasers do not cut or ablate the tissue. The therapy performed with low-level lasers ia called as LLLT. LLLT devices include the gallium arsenide, gallium aluminum arsenide infrared semiconductor (gallium-aluminum-arsenide), and helium-neon lasers. The output powers range from 50 to 500 mW with wavelengths in the red and near infrared of the electromagnetic spectrum, from 630 to 980 nm with pulsed or continuous-wave emission. The application of LLLT has become popular in a variety of clinical applications in periodontics including promotion of wound healing and reduction of pain following nonsurgical and surgical procedures.
  6,473 1,123 1
Root canal morphology of human primary maxillary molars in Indian population using spiral computed tomography scan: An in vitro study
Rajendran Vijayakumar, Haridoss Selvakumar, Kavitha Swaminathan, Eapen Thomas, Rajendran Ganesh, Senthikumar Palanimuthu
October-December 2013, 4(4):139-142
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the root canal morphology of primary maxillary molars in Indian population using spiral computed tomography (SCT). Materials and Methods: The 30 extracted primary maxillary molars were collected. The teeth were scanned using SCT. The scanned data was then transferred to image analysis software and evaluated for the following: Distance between the central fissure to furcation, distance between the central fissure to the floor of the pulp chamber, height of the pulp chamber (roof-floor), distance between the floor of the pulp chamber to the furcation and number of canals. Results: The results of this study shows that the average mean distance from the central fissure to the floor of the pulp chamber is 5.02 mm and 5.32 mm in first maxillary primary molar and second maxillary primary molar. Conclusion: Knowledge of the root canal morphology and anatomical landmarks of the primary maxillary molar might be a very helpful indicator to the dentist during access opening.
  3,873 3,279 -
The obturator prostheses for maxillectomy
A Meenakshi, Darshan Shah
July-September 2012, 3(3):193-197
Management of the patient with congenital or acquired defect of palate, resulting in communication between oral cavity and nose and/or maxillary sinus, presents challenge to the clinician. The prosthodontic management involves use of obturator prosthesis. This article discusses various aspects of the obturator prosthesis.
  6,115 1,033 2
A study of prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis among school children in a Northern hilly state of India
Deepak Chauhan, Tripti Chauhan, Vinod Sachdev, Bimal C Kirtaniya
July-September 2012, 3(3):170-174
Background: Dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in 15 states of India. Himachal Pradesh has considerable amount of problem though not an endemic zone for dental fluorosis. Aims: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis using Dean's index among school going children of rural and urban areas. Settings and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among the students in the age group of 5, 9 and 12 years from rural and urban areas of six district of Himachal Pradesh in the year 2009 to 2010. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,800 school children of both sexes from randomly selected schools were examined as per the WHO survey proforma to identify the presence of dental fluorosis and grade it using Dean's index. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 15.0 was used. Data expressed as proportions and test applied was Chi-square test. Results: Out of these total 1,800 children, 973 were boys and 827 were girls. Of them, 612, 564 and 624 children belonged to the age groups of 5, 9 and 12 years, respectively. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 4.1%. The prevalence ranged from highest 7% in district Shimla to lowest 1.7% in district Sirmour (P < 0.002). Dental fluorosis was equally distributed in rural and urban areas of six districts but was more common among girls than boys. The trend of increase in prevalence was observed with increase in age (P < 0.00002). Conclusions: A well-designed epidemiological study should be undertaken to evaluate the risk factors associated with the condition in the study region.
  6,528 461 1
Nanotechnology: A boon in oral cancer diagnosis and therapeutics
Abhijeet Alok, Sunil Panat, Ashish Aggarwal, Nitin Upadhyay, Nupur Agarwal, Mallika Kishore
October-December 2013, 4(4):154-160
Nanotechnology is rapidly developing subdivision of technology that effects on many fields. Medicine is also influenced by nanotechnology. Nanotechnology modified methods can be used in cancer treatment. Nanotechnology can assist to have better diagnosis with less harmful substance. The use of optical nanoparticles provides efficient drug delivery to tumor cells with liposomes and functionalized micelles. Nanotechnology can be also used in molecular imaging with tomography and photoacoustic imaging of tumors and therapy of cancer as photothermal and radiotherapy. Nanotechnology a next generation techniques have many advantages to treat cancer patients from diagnosis to treatment.
  5,849 684 1
Ayurveda and holistic approach in oro-dental care: An overview
Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj
July-September 2015, 6(3):181-186
Dentistry was not a well recognized specialized branch of Ayurveda, literature shows it was included in its Shalakya Tantra. Before the inception and regular use of modern allopathic system, problems related to the oral cavity, plaques and infections were managed in ancient India. Traditional medicine can treat various infectious and chronic conditions. Various researchers have revealed that all kinds of chewing sticks described in ancient Ayurveda literature have medicinal and anti-cariogenic properties. Its oil pulling (Kabla Graham, Kabla Gardoosa) practice is claimed to cure about 30 systemic diseases. Use of safe, quality products and practices should be ensured based on available evidence if traditional medicine is to be acknowledged as part of primary health care. Traditional medicine is the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures that are used to maintain health, as well as to prevent, diagnose, improve or treat physical and mental illnesses. Traditional medicine that has been adopted by other populations (outside its indigenous culture) is often termed complementary or alternative medicine. Herbal medicines include herbs, herbal materials, herbal preparations, and finished herbal products that contain parts of plants or other plant materials as active ingredients. Scientific validations of the Ayurveda dental health practices could justify their incorporation into modern oro dental care. Publicity of these techniques using appropriate media would benefit the general population by giving more confidence in the ancient practices, thus preventing various oro dental problems
  5,725 511 -
Molar incisor hypomineralisation: A review of its current concepts and management
Ramesh Krishnan, Maya Ramesh
October-December 2014, 5(4):248-252
Over the past two decades, there is an increasing number of congenital defects affecting enamel mineralisation referred to as "molar incisor hypomineralisation" (MIH). This defect usually involves one to four permanent first molars and permanent incisors. Clinically, the defect presents as opaque lesions varying in colour from white to yellow or brown, with a sharp demarcation between the affected and sound enamel to posteruptive enamel breakdown. The destruction of enamel is so rapid and clinically, it presents as if the enamel has not formed at all. It has been postulated that MIH is a consequence of a variety of environmental factors acting systemically, which disturb the ameloblasts during amelogenesis. However, the possibility of a genetic component in the development of MIH cannot be excluded. Management of MIH always pose a big problem to the clinicians, as well as for the child due to severe sensitivity caused by the defective enamel.
  5,051 1,080 4
Closure of midline diastema through combined surgical and Removable orthodontic approach
Deepak Chauhan, Bimal Kirtaniya, Avantika Tuli, Tripti Chauhan
January-March 2013, 4(1):46-49
Midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and permanent dentition. Many innovative therapies are varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomy) and orthodontics are available. A high frenum attachment is often the cause of persistent diastemas. Presented herewith is a case report of a 13-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. This case report demonstrates the removal of the abnormal labial frenum attachment through surgery and subsequent closure of maxillary diastema following removable orthodontic treatment.
  5,327 648 -
Nonsurgical removal of separated gutta percha and granulation tissue from the periapical area using an aspiration irrigation technique
Shanmugam Jaikailash, Mahendran Kavitha, Kannan Gokul
July-September 2012, 3(3):220-223
Pulpal diseases progress to periapical lesions. The incidence of cysts and granulomas within periapical lesions are 55% and 70.07%, respectively. It is accepted that all inflammatory periapical lesions should be initially treated with conservative nonsurgical procedures. Studies have reported a success rate of up to 85% after endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesions. The various options for the removal of obturating material are K-files or H-files, gutta percha solvent, combination of paper points and gutta percha solvent, rotary instruments, retreatment files, heat transfer devices, heat carrier tips, ultrasonic tips and soft tissue laser. In the present case, we removed the gutta percha using K-files and H-files. The various methods of removing detached gutta percha are K-files and H-files, heat carrier tips or periapical surgery. Various methods can be used in the nonsurgical management of periapical lesions: The conservative root canal treatment, decompression technique, active nonsurgical decompression technique, aspiration-irrigation technique, calcium hydroxide methods, lesion sterilization and repair therapy and the apexum procedure. In the present case, we removed the gutta percha using K-files and H-files and we followed the aspiration-irrigation technique as a line of management. This case report describes an aspiration-irrigation technique achieved through the root canal space, which might hasten osseous regeneration, thereby eliminating the need for periapical surgery.
  5,360 307 -
Ludwig's angina: A case report and review of management
Sasikala Balasubramanian, P Elavenil, S Shanmugasundaram, J Himarani, VB Krishnakumar Raja
July-September 2014, 5(3):211-214
Space infection in the Oral and Maxillofacial region is common from odontogenic origin especially in the immunocompromised patients. Ludwig's angina which is relatively uncommon remains a potentially life-threatening condition due to the risk of impending airway obstruction. Thus, because of its invasive nature, early identification and management of Ludwig's angina is extremely important.
  4,876 705 2
Legal modalities in dental patient management and professional misconduct
Ashish Vashist, Swati Parhar, Ramandeep Singh Gambhir, Ramandeep Kaur Sohi, Puneet Puneet Talwar
April-June 2014, 5(2):91-96
While providing the oral healthcare services, a dentist has to follow certain set of standards to avoid any litigation in the name of malpractice. Consent is a fundamental and established principle in the Indian Law. Not taking consent is considered as deficiency in medical services. Medical records are documentary evidence as per the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. A dental professional is bound by law and ethics while providing treatment to his patients. Disclosure of complete information that is necessary to the patient regarding the treatment is essential to avoid any clauses of negligence against the doctor, even if there is no contract between the doctor and patient. Healthcare malpractice can be challenged under two main categories in the court of law, that is, civil and criminal depending on the nature of offence. A third category lies under consumer protection act, 1986, where professional services provided by the dentist can be challenged. Professional indemnity insurance also known as 'Defense Costs' will pay all the costs, fees, and expenses incurred with their prior consent in the investigation, defense, or settlement of any claim made against the insured.While providing the oral healthcare services, a dentist has to follow certain set of standards to avoid any litigation in the name of malpractice. Consent is a fundamental and established principle in the Indian Law. Not taking consent is considered as deficiency in medical services. Medical records are documentary evidence as per the Indian Evidence Act, 1872. A dental professional is bound by law and ethics while providing treatment to his patients. Disclosure of complete information that is necessary to the patient regarding the treatment is essential to avoid any clauses of negligence against the doctor, even if there is no contract between the doctor and patient. Healthcare malpractice can be challenged under two main categories in the court of law, that is, civil and criminal depending on the nature of offence. A third category lies under consumer protection act, 1986, where professional services provided by the dentist can be challenged. Professional indemnity insurance also known as 'Defense Costs' will pay all the costs, fees, and expenses incurred with their prior consent in the investigation, defense, or settlement of any claim made against the insured.
  4,816 719 -
Anti-fungal activity of Aloe vera: In vitro study
Fazlia Shireen, Sunayana Manipal, D Prabu
April-June 2015, 6(2):92-95
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fungal activity of Aloe vera extract on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Extract from A. vera fruit was tested for anti-fungal activity via in vitro study at various concentrations using the disc diffusion method. Results: A. vera extract at 1000 μg/ml concentration effectively inhibited the growth of C. albicans (14 mm) compared with the positive control-amphotericin B (15 mm). It was found to be a dose-dependent reaction. Conclusion: A. vera displayed good anti-fungal effect on C. albicans and the inhibitory effect varied with concentration.
  4,827 446 1
Ameloglyphics: An adjunctive aid in individual identification
Ravindrakumar Bharanidharan, Raghavendhar Karthik, A Rameshkumar, P Rajashree, K Rajkumar
October-December 2014, 5(4):264-268
Human identification in homicides and mass disasters has been largely possible with skeletal remains, especially teeth, when soft tissue cannot provide reliable information or has been lost. From the point of forensic dental identification especially in identifying victims of man-made disasters such as in military conflicts and wars involving multiple fatalities, there is urgent need for new and reliable methods of identification and corroboration. Various methods currently employed in forensic odontology for personal identification include comparing with ante mortem dental charts, rugoscopy, denture labelling, DNA analysis from dental pulp, bite mark analysis, etc. Recently there is growing interest in the study of enamel rod end patterns. These enamel rod end patterns are termed as tooth prints and the study of these prints is known as Ameloglyphics (amelo: Enamel, glyphics: Carvings). The tooth prints are unique, exhibiting dissimilarity both between teeth of different individuals and of the same individual. This uniqueness of the tooth print could be used as a valuable tool in forensic science for personal identification. This review highlights about the basis of using enamel rod end patterns, methods of obtaining the patterns, and delineating its sub-patterns.
  4,372 771 1
The correlation of skin color and gingival pigmentation patterns in a group of South Indians in Tamil Nadu, India
Deepa Ponnaiyan, L Gomathy, JA Anusha
April-June 2013, 4(2):54-58
Background: Melanin pigmentation of the gingiva occurs in all ethnicities. Excessive pigmentation is an esthetic concern that has increased awareness about depigmentation procedures. The purpose of the present study is to correlate skin color and gender with intensity and distribution of gingival melanin pigmentation in a group of South Indians for treatment strategies. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 male and female non-smoking healthy subjects were included aged 18-35 years. A clinical examination of gingiva was performed to assess the anatomic distribution of gingival pigmentation. The intensity of gingival pigmentation and phenotype of gingiva were also assessed. Subsequently, the skin color was visually examined and assessed as fair, wheatish brown and dark. Results: Six classes of gingival pigmentation were defined based on the anatomic distribution. Gingival pigmentation was observed as highest being in the attached gingiva and interdental papilla (25.4%) and least being in the marginal gingiva and interdental papilla (10.2%). Correlation between skin color and intensity of pigmentation was statistically significant, with dark skinned subjects having heavy gingival pigmentation. However, no correlation was found between gender and phenotype of the gingiva with intensity and distribution of pigmentation. Conclusion: South Indians predominantly have pigmentation in attached gingiva and interdental papilla and their skin color is positively correlated with the intensity of pigmentation. Incidence of pigmentation did not differ between the sexes. Majority of subjects had thick gingival phenotype. Anatomic delineation of gingival pigmentation and their contributory factors may help design treatment strategies in depigmentation procedures.
  4,615 435 -
Aloe vera: Magic or myth
Akhil Agarwal, Nidhi Dwivedi
July-September 2013, 4(3):119-124
Aloe vera is a versatile plant with a numerous health benefits. It has various outstanding features like anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-tumor which help in accelerating wound healing and in treating various lesions of the oral cavity. Although it has clinically proven benefits, its practical use in repairing oral lesions still warrants further research. The A. vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses in dentistry are briefly reviewed in the current article.
  4,307 428 1
Evaluation of styloid process using digital panoramic radiographs
Manishkumar Shete, Yogita Khalekar, Raghvendra Byakodi
October-December 2015, 6(4):215-219
Context: The styloid process (SP) is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process (ESP) and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. SP is said to be elongated if it is longer than 3 cm in length. Anatomical variations are very common. It has been reported that 2-28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. SP could be elongated although symptoms are present only in some individuals. Panoramic radiography is most economical and readily available imaging modality to view the SP bilaterally. Aim: The aim of this present study was to assess the SP on digital panoramic radiographs. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available as a soft copy in our Radiology Department. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the SP was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. Statistical Analysis Used: The collected data was entered in a spreadsheet (Excel 2007, Microsoft, Richmond, USA) and was analyzed using statistical analysis software (SPSS version 17, Chicago, USA). Results: Average length of SP on the left side was 34.54 ± 7.54 mm and 33.02 ± 6.70 mm in male and female population, respectively. The average length of SP on right side was 35.30 ± 7.46 mm and 34.54 ± 7.31 mm in male and female population, respectively. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 82.2% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids were more common than others. Conclusions: Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an ESP and/or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms and helps to avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin.
  1,480 3,173 -
Prosthodontic significance of tongue: An overview
Prince Kumar, Ashish Khattar, Suresh Yadav, Puneet Kumar
July-September 2012, 3(3):224-224
  3,597 963 -