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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2020
Volume 11 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-59

Online since Wednesday, March 11, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Evaluation of parents' knowledge about the stem cells' importance of primary teeth in Isfahan p. 1
Maryam Hajahmadi, Nosrat Nourbakhsh, Azadeh Salehzadeh, Najmeh Akhlaghi, Mehrnaz Safi
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_59_19  
Context: Stem cells (SCs) present in the pulp of primary teeth can be used for the treatment of many diseases as well as regeneration and renovation. This study investigated the parents' awareness of the importance of primary teeth SCs in Isfahan. Aims: The aim of the study was to understand the level of parent's knowledge about primary teeth SCs and the source of their knowledge. Settings and Design: It was a descriptive research that was done in university clinics of Isfahan city. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study was carried out on 384 parents referring to the clinics and dental offices of Isfahan using a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient (α = 0.05). Results: The mean age of the parents was 37.55 years. The mean score of knowledge in the whole sample was 4.85 ± 3.83. The knowledge score was higher in the mothers (5.8 ± 3.91) than in the fathers (4.28 ± 3.54). Spearman's correlation coefficient showed a significant difference between the mean scores of parents' knowledge and the number of children (r = −0.1, P = 0.05), residence (P = 0.001), economic status (r = 0.442, P < 0.001), education (r = 0.556, P < 0.001), job status (P < 0.001), and frequency of dental referrals (r = −0.337, P < 0.001). However, no significant relationship was found between the mean score of knowledge and age (r = −0.7, P = 0.176). Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that parental knowledge about primary stem cells is inadequate.
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A comparative evaluation of ice and topical anesthetic gel in the reduction of pain before the injection: A clinical trial p. 6
Disha Bansal, Mrinalini Mahajan, Shivam Mathur
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_66_19  
Background: Lateral cephalogram can now be traced using android-based smartphones making dentist's work easier and time saving. Various orthodontic analysis can also be carried out using these smart apps. This study was undertaken to assess the reliability of the android smartphone-based app with the manual tracing using Tweed analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken randomly from patients below 15 years reported for orthodontic problems. Tweed analysis was carried out for each radiograph; incisal mandibular plane angle, facial mandibular angle, and facial mandibular incisal plane angle were recorded, first manually traced, followed by digitally using android-based OneCeph digital cephalometric tracer. Values obtained by android-based OneCeph and manual methods are compared. Results: The values showed normal distribution, therefore parametric test was used to analyze the data; there was no statistically significant difference between the values obtained for Tweed analysis by android-based tracing and manual cephalometric tracing. Conclusion: This study showed that the digital tracing with the OneCeph software had the same accuracy in comparison to manual tracing and could be used instead of the traditional methods for various orthodontic analysis.
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Carabelli's trait: Frequency and expression in primary and permanent dentition p. 11
Prasun Mukhopadhyay, Santanu Mukhopadhyay
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_73_19  
Aim: Carabelli's trait (CT) is a cusp or groove seen on the palatal surface of the mesiopalatal cusp of primary maxillary second molars and permanent maxillary first molars. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and degree of expression of CT in the primary maxillary second molars and permanent first molars in Bengali population. Methods: In this descriptive study, 377 children (193 males and 184 females) of both sexes were examined clinically for the presence of CT. Intraoral examinations were carried out to determine the incidence and degree of expression of a CT for the primary maxillary second molars and permanent first molars. When present, CT was recorded as cusp or pit. Results: The frequency of CT was 45.6% with no significant sex difference (P > 0.05). The prevalence of the trait was more in primary maxillary second molars (38.7%) than in permanent first molars (23.1%). Bilateralism of CT was observed in 79.1% of the cases. Negative expression or pit form of the trait was more common than cuspal configuration. There was a positive association (P = 0.00) between the occurrence of CT in the primary second molars and permanent first molars. Conclusion: The prevalence of CT was more in primary maxillary second molars than in permanent maxillary first molars. The presence of CT in the primary maxillary second molars was positively associated with CT in the maxillary permanent first molars.
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Radiographic evaluation of mandibular morphometric differences in prepubertal and postpubertal individuals in a Turkish subpopulation p. 16
Burak Kerem Apaydin, Hilal Ozbey
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_77_19  
Introduction: Radiologic differences in the mandible between genders have been evaluated; however, studies are lacking in comparison of prepuberty and postpuberty. The purpose of this study was to measure the gonial angle (GA), ante GA (AGA), bicondylar breadth (BB), mental index (MI), minimum ramus breadth (MRB), bigonial width (BW), and ramus height (RH) on panoramic radiographs obtained from Turkish patients and to elucidate how those measurements relate with age and gender in pre- and post-pubertal period. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of patients aged between 5 and 50 years old were taken according to the manufacturer's instructions. A total of 760 radiographic images were evaluated (19 groups, n = 40). GA, AGA, BB, MI, MRB, BW, and RH values were measured on digital panoramic radiographs using Java Image Processing Software on the images. The data were analyzed by independent sample t-tests and regression analysis using a software program (P < 0.05). Results: Only AGA values were statistically significant between male and female patients in both prepubertal and postpubertal periods (P < 0.05). A statistically significant difference was found in AGA, BB, MI, MRB, BW, and RH in postpubertal period between male and female patients (P < 0.05). Besides, when the ages between 5 and 20 years were analyzed, all parameters except for GA and AGA were significantly correlated positively with age in both genders. Conclusions: Only AGA values can be used for gender determination both in prepubertal and postpubertal period. In addition, BB, MI, MRB, BW, and RH values were correlated positively with age in both prepubertal and postpubertal groups.
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Prevalence of dental caries, gingival disease, and periodontal disease in Bihar population: A community-based research p. 21
Amit Kumar Singh, Rashi Chauhan, Khushboo Rani, Kriti Singh, Kumar Anand, Wagisha Barbie
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_93_19  
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries, gingival diseases, and periodontal disease among the rural population of Bihar, India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a total sample size of 8200 people with an age group of 20–60 years. Dental caries, gingival health, and periodontal health were recorded using the modified World Health Organization pro forma (1997). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance were applied. Results: Among 8200 patients, the highest incidence of cases was seen in dental caries that is 5800 patients. Two thousand and two hundred patients were having poor gingival status and 2000 patients were suffering from periodontal diseases. Periodontal diseases were significantly more common among people with no education (P = 0.02) and significant in males (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings of this study provided a discernment into the gingival health status, periodontal health status, and the prevalence of dental caries of rural population, which may be useful in planning oral health programs and free services and dental treatment, especially to this rural sector.
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Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of post-operative sleep following routine dental extraction p. 24
Bahadir Sancar, Mehmet Emrah Polat
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_95_19  
Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of postoperative sleep following routine (nonsurgical) dental extraction. Materials and Methods: Participants with the indication of one- or two-teeth extractions under local anesthesia (n = 274) (experimental group) and the control group without any surgical intervention (n = 50) were included in the study. On the next day of extraction, individuals were asked about their routine day and night sleep durations and the day and night sleep durations following dental extraction, in addition to the Richard–Campbell Sleep Scale. The assessments were made regarding gender, age, one or two teeth, maxilla or mandibular, single- or multi-rooted groups. The control group individuals were asked about routine day and night sleep durations in addition to the Richard–Campbell Sleep Scale, too. Results: No difference was found in terms of the sleep quality between the groups. When the sleep durations were compared, it was observed that the sleep durations on the first night after dental extraction (P < 0.05) and total daily (P < 0.05) sleep durations were decreased. No difference was found in terms of sleep duration when the extractions of single-rooted and multi-rooted teeth were compared. When individuals with two-teeth extractions were compared with individuals with single-tooth extractions, it was seen that the night sleep durations of the individuals with two-teeth extractions were decreased (P = 0.017). Age group comparisons showed statistically significant sleep duration changes before extraction but not for after extractions. Conclusion: As a result, we found that the duration of sleep was reduced, although there was no change in the quality of sleep for the first day when the morbidity was most intense after routine nonsurgical dental extraction. And also, it is found that the duration of sleep decreased as the number of extractions increased.
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Tooth loss, prosthetic status, and prosthodontic treatment needs of an Indian fishing community p. 30
Sumeet Bhatt, G Rajesh, Ashwini Rao, Ramya Shenoy, BH Mithun Pai, Vijayendra Nayak
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_78_19  
Background: The disadvantaged communities are often susceptible to poor oral health due to low incomes, lack of awareness, and low health-care utilization. Untreated dental diseases can lead to loss of teeth which may result in unmet prosthodontic needs. The present study assessed tooth loss, prosthetic status, and treatment needs of a fishing community in Mangalore, India. Materials and Methods: Oral examination of 400 individuals from a fishing community was done through a house-to-house cross-sectional survey using the World Health Organization oral health assessment form 1997. Data on demography, personal habits, and dental utilization were collected using a questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of tooth loss was 43%, and the mean number of missing teeth was 2.32 ± 5.21. More tooth loss was observed in older age groups and smokers. About 97% of the participants did not use any prosthesis, whereas it was needed in 23% in the maxillary arch and 33% in the mandibular arch. Prosthetic need was higher in older age groups. Majority of the participants had never visited a dentist before. Conclusions: Tooth loss was associated with age and smoking in this population. Utilization of oral health services was low, and prosthetic need was high. Targeted health promotion is recommended to prevent tooth loss and improve prosthetic status.
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Reliability of One Ceph software in cephalometric tracing: A comparative study p. 35
Deema Abdul Khader, Faizal C Peedikayil, TP Chandru, Soni Kottayi, Dhanesh Namboothiri
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_69_19  
Background: Lateral cephalogram can now be traced using android-based smartphones making dentist's work easier and time saving. Various orthodontic analysis can also be carried out using these smart apps. This study was undertaken to assess the reliability of the android smartphone-based app with the manual tracing using Tweed analysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken randomly from patients below 15 years reported for orthodontic problems. Tweed analysis was carried out for each radiograph; incisal mandibular plane angle, facial mandibular angle, and facial mandibular incisal plane angle were recorded, first manually traced, followed by digitally using android-based OneCeph digital cephalometric tracer. Values obtained by android-based OneCeph and manual methods are compared. Results: The values showed normal distribution, therefore parametric test was used to analyze the data; there was no statistically significant difference between the values obtained for Tweed analysis by android-based tracing and manual cephalometric tracing. Conclusion: This study showed that the digital tracing with the OneCeph software had the same accuracy in comparison to manual tracing and could be used instead of the traditional methods for various orthodontic analysis.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Link between tooth loss, cardiovascular disease and periodontitis: A review p. 40
Surekha Rathod, Dhanashree Ghoderao, Noopur Gonde
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_75_19  
It is increasingly common to hear that oral health is vital for overall health. Oral diseases may be the risk factor for many of the systemic diseases. Some of the common oral conditions include dental caries, periodontitis, and tooth loss. These conditions may have a negative effect on health. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the common systemic diseases. Some of the common risk factors are shared by CVDs, periodontitis, and tooth loss. Hence, the review was based on the purpose to study the link between tooth loss, periodontitis, and CVDs. The search was based on population, intervention, comparison, and outcome to decide the parameters to study the link between CVDs, periodontitis, and tooth loss for the search methodology, and relevant articles were searched from various databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar. These articles were assessed by investigators. By assessing the articles, we found that tooth loss, periodontitis, and CVDs share some risk factors and may be linked with each other. Further studies should be carried to prove this association.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Dens evaginatus: A diagnostic dilemma p. 46
Preeti Chawla Arora, Aman Arora, Tanisha Kalair, Simranpreet Kaur Kharbanda
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_84_19  
Dens evaginatus (DE) is a developmental disturbance that clinically appears as an accessory occlusal tuberculated cusp composed of enamel and dentin, enclosing a thin pulp tissue. It mainly involves the mandibular premolars. These cusp-like protrusions are susceptible to wear and fractures with subsequent pulp exposure leading to pulpal necrosis. In most cases, DE is discovered due to periapical inflammation in the absence of obvious clinical presentation of caries, trauma, or other pathologies, thus making it a diagnostic challenge. A case of nonvital tooth with an obscured DE in an 18-year-old male is reported here with a review of literature.
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Propranolol therapy for the management of oral lobular capillary hemangioma in a 2-year-old preschooler: A case report and review p. 50
Namita Kalra, Rishi Tyagi, Amit Khatri, Harsh Vijay Singh, Puja Sabherwal, Mayank Sharma
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_91_19  
Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH), a histological variant of pyogenic granuloma (PG) is an inflammatory hyperplasia commonly seen on oral mucosa as a reaction to local irritants, trauma or hormonal influences. The term “PG” is a misnomer as it is neither pus filled nor representative of a granuloma histologically. It is an inflammatory lesion composed of proliferating vascular, fibrous, and inflammatory tissue. The benign tumor has varied clinical and histopathological presentations and occurs frequently on the gingiva in the oral cavity. The article presents a case report where 2-week propranolol therapy was used to manage oral LCH (with a rare site of presentation) in a 2-year-old preschooler with a 9-month follow-up showing no recurrence followed by review of literature.
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CASE SERIES Top

Conventional radiograph and cone-beam computed tomography in the evaluation of odontogenic cysts and tumors - An analysis of seven cases p. 54
Durgadevi Boopathi, Jimsha Vannathan Kumaran, Srinivasan Subramanian Vasudevan, Jonathan Daniel Mariappan
DOI:10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_90_19  
Introduction: Odontogenic cysts and tumors are the most common pathologies affecting the jaws. Radiographic evaluation of cysts and tumors is an important aspect of diagnosis and surgical treatment planning. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides three-dimensional views of cysts and tumors regarding accuracy and quality of interpretation. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the radiographic features of odontogenic cysts and tumors in conventional radiograph and in CBCT and to assess the advantages of CBCT over conventional radiography in the evaluation of cysts and tumors. Materials and Methods: All types of odontogenic cysts and tumors in both males and females were included. Nonodontogenic cysts and tumors were excluded. Conventional radiograph and cone-beam computed tomographic images of seven patients who had histopathologically confirmed odontogenic cysts and tumors were retrospectively reviewed from the archives of the department of oral medicine and radiology in the institution. Conclusion: In this radiographic study, the advantages of CBCT in the assessment of extent, effect on surrounding structures and internal structure of odontogenic cysts and tumors were determined, and specific advantages of CBCT were ascertained.
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