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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-23

Prevalence of dental caries, gingival disease, and periodontal disease in Bihar population: A community-based research


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India
2 Department of Orthodontics, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India
3 Department of Dentistry, AIIMS, Patna, Bihar, India

Date of Submission23-Dec-2019
Date of Acceptance23-Jan-2020
Date of Web Publication11-Mar-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kriti Singh
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences, Patna, Bihar
India
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DOI: 10.4103/srmjrds.srmjrds_93_19

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  Abstract 

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries, gingival diseases, and periodontal disease among the rural population of Bihar, India. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a total sample size of 8200 people with an age group of 20–60 years. Dental caries, gingival health, and periodontal health were recorded using the modified World Health Organization pro forma (1997). Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance were applied. Results: Among 8200 patients, the highest incidence of cases was seen in dental caries that is 5800 patients. Two thousand and two hundred patients were having poor gingival status and 2000 patients were suffering from periodontal diseases. Periodontal diseases were significantly more common among people with no education (P = 0.02) and significant in males (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The findings of this study provided a discernment into the gingival health status, periodontal health status, and the prevalence of dental caries of rural population, which may be useful in planning oral health programs and free services and dental treatment, especially to this rural sector.

Keywords: Dental caries, gingival health, periodontal disease, prevalence


How to cite this article:
Singh AK, Chauhan R, Rani K, Singh K, Anand K, Barbie W. Prevalence of dental caries, gingival disease, and periodontal disease in Bihar population: A community-based research. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2020;11:21-3

How to cite this URL:
Singh AK, Chauhan R, Rani K, Singh K, Anand K, Barbie W. Prevalence of dental caries, gingival disease, and periodontal disease in Bihar population: A community-based research. SRM J Res Dent Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 May 31];11:21-3. Available from: http://www.srmjrds.in/text.asp?2020/11/1/21/280382


  Introduction Top


Dental health is as vital as general health, but the dichotomy is it has not received the same amount of importance as that of the general health. This fact is even more prevalent in the rural population.[1] They are bound to neglect their oral health because of the stressful life and busy schedule. Rural population are a major section of our population, and studies have shown a clear association, greater incidence of oral diseases, and prevalence of oral diseases such as dental caries, gingival diseases, and periodontal disease in rural masses.[2] Majority of this population living in rural areas are in the utmost need of the medical and dental facilities. These people suffer from poor oral and general health and poor working conditions which affect the quality of life.[3]

For maintenance of good oral health, external environment plays a crucial role, since majority of population are exposed to a hazardous work environment which further worsens their life.[4] Medical heartiness which can cause morbidity is given more preference which allows them to prolong their higher number of work hours. Contrary to this, oral health is neglected due to minimal priority, overwork, multiple visits, limited availability of dental services, and financial constraints.[5]

Keeping in view the above information, the present study was conducted among rural population in Bihar to assess oral health.


  Materials and Methods Top


Ethical guidelines

A cross-sectional descriptive study was approved by the Research Ethics Review Board of Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, India. Individuals who participated in the study were presented a consent form. It was mandatory for all the study participants to acknowledge and sign the consent form before including in the study.

Eligibility criteria

The inclusion criteria were self-reported systemically healthy individuals.

The exclusion criteria were as follows:

  1. Edentulous patients
  2. Individuals who reported having used antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and/or steroids within the past 6 months
  3. Patients who reported to have undergone periodontal treatment within the past 6 months.


Study participants

The study was carried out from August 2017 to October 2018. A total of 8200 participants from rural population were examined with an age range from 19 to 60 years. The total sample size was divided into four separate age groups, i.e., 19–30 years, 31–40 years, 41–50 years, and 51–60 years to estimate the clinical parameters.

Recording of data

A single examiner and a recording assistant were trained and calibrated in the department of oral medicine and radiology. Modified World Health Organization (WHO) format (1997) was used to collect the demographic details, including the periodontal health evaluation and oral health examination. The clinical examination was carried out where the people were made to sit on the chair and the community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) clinical parameters were recorded for the periodontal health evaluation.

Questions pertaining to oral hygiene behaviors and daily habits were adapted from the WHO oral health questionnaire for adults. The clinical examination included the number of teeth that were decayed, missing, and filled as a result of dental caries. The WHO oral assessment form was used to record the results of intraoral examinations.

Frequency distributions of demographics and caries prevalence (mean Decay, Missing, and Filled Teeth [DMFT] scores and percentage of adults with caries) were obtained using the SPSS Statistics version 22. It is database software in which cross tabulation generates the results. Chi-square statistics were used to examine the associations of oral hygiene behaviors, age, gender, and educational levels. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the demographic variables. Oral hygiene behaviors and daily habits are factors that influenced overall caries experience.


  Results Top


The sample consisted of 34% of females and 66% of males [Figure 1]. The average age of the participants was 35.5 ± 15.1 years. About 31% of the study participants had no formal education. Approximately 90% of the sample had very low to low levels of caries, and 6.9% of the sample population had high levels of caries (WHO caries severity criteria).
Figure 1: Gender distribution of study population

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Females had a higher percentage of total lifetime decay (78.9%) and untreated decay (46.4%) as compared to males.

The mean DMFT score for the study population was the mean number of filled teeth across all categories which was <1.

With respect to gender, males had a higher DMFT score (5.6 ± 6.6), missing (2.6 ± 6.0), and filled teeth (0.3 ± 0.24) compared to females.

Among 8200 patients, the highest incidence of cases was seen in dental caries that is 5800 patients. Two thousand and two hundred patients were having poor gingival status and 2000 patients were suffering from periodontal diseases.

Periodontal diseases were significantly more common among people with no education (P = 0.02) and significant in males (P < 0.001).


  Discussion Top


Oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontitis, show an increasing incidence and prevalence in middle-income countries such as India.[6] This study insight at the prevalence of dental caries and its associated factors in the rural community of Bihar population. Prior literature also revealed the association between oral hygiene behaviors and dental caries.[7]

While a greater percentage of females had untreated decay and caries experience, males had higher mean DMFT scores.

In a study in Uruguay, mean DMFT increased with age, 15.2 and 24.12 for the 35–44 and 65–74 years' age groups, respectively. The mean number of decayed teeth was 1.7 in adults and 0.66 in elders. The high prevalence of dental caries among 35–44 years' age group was related to infrequent toothbrushing, low socioeconomic status, and need for oral care.[8]

The level of caries experience in the study sample was very moderate in accordance with the WHO classification of the caries severity index.

In the present study, periodontal health status was assessed using CPI and LOA, and it was compared within various age groups.

The overall prevalence of periodontal disease was found to be 87.4% which is high, and the studies by Hohlfeld and Bernimoulin,[9] Kumar et al.,[10] and Shaikh et al.[11] show a higher prevalence of nearly 100% in adults. It clearly shows that Periodontitis is the most prevalent dental disease among adults globally and thereby implicates the need for prevention with large measures as it can eventually lead to exfoliation of teeth.

Payal Kahar et al[12] conducted a study in Bihar population about Prevalence of dental caries, patterns of oral hygiene behaviors, and daily habits which reported 90% of the sample had very low to low levels of caries, and 6.9% of the sample population had high levels of caries which is in contrast according to our study.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the study that explores the caries prevalence and its severity levels, and also, it identified the gingival and periodontal status in the village population of Bihar state.


  Conclusions Top


Periodontal health of the participants in the study was found to be poor, especially among the older age groups. Furthermore, the prevalence of dental caries was high which requires the adoption and conduction of adequate awareness programs regarding the importance of oral hygiene and the importance of regular visits to the dentist for maintenance of good oral health.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
World Health Organization. Oral Health. Strategies and Approaches in Oral Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. World Health Organization; 2014.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Nagarajappa R, Sanadhya S, Sharda AJ, Asawa K, Tak M, Batra M, et al. Assessment of the periodontal status among Kota stone workers in Jhalawar, India. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:1498-503.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Peterson PE, Baez RJ. Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods. 5th ed. France: World Health Organization; 2013.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Zubiene J, Milciuviene S, Klumbiene J. Evaluation of dental care and the prevalence of tooth decay among middle-aged and elderly population of Kaunas city. Stomatologija 2009;11:42-7.   Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Shizukuishi S, Hayashi N, Tamagawa H, Hanioka T, Maruyama S, Takeshita T, et al. Lifestyle and periodontal health status of Japanese factory workers. Ann Periodontol 1998;3:303-11.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Shyagali TR, Rai N. Occupational dental health hazards: A review. Int J Contemp Dent Med Rev 2015;54:475-83.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Sanadhya S, Nagarajappa R, Sharda AJ, Asawa K, Tak M, Batra M, et al. The oral health status and the treatment needs of salt workers at Sambhar Lake, Jaipur, India. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:1782-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Pilot T, Lu ZY, Lin ZQ, Yen WP, Cao GR. Periodontal conditions in 35-44-year-old factory workers in Shanghai. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1989;17:216.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Hohlfeld M, Bernimoulin JP. Application of the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) in a group of 45-54-year-old German factory workers. J Clin Periodontol 1993;20:551-6.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Kumar S, Dagli RJ, Chandrakant D, Prabu D, Suhas K. Periodontal status of green Marble mine labourers in Kesariyaji, Rajasthan, India. Oral Health Prev Dent 2008;6:217-21.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Shaikh H, Shankar S, Vinay S. Assessment of periodontal status and treatment needs among beedi factory employees Harapanahalli town, Davangere district, Karnataka. J Indian Acad Dent Spec 2011;2:13-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Tanwir F, Altamash M, Gustafsson A. Influence of betel nut chewing, dental care habits and attitudes on perceived oral health among adult Pakistanis. Oral Health Prev Dent 2008;6:89-94.  Back to cited text no. 12
    


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