Print this page Email this page | Users Online: 524
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 119-124

Aloe vera: Magic or myth


1 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Babu Banarsi Das College of Dental Sciences, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Babu Banarsi Das College of Dental Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication20-Nov-2013

Correspondence Address:
Nidhi Dwivedi
2/308, Vibhav Khand, Gomti Nagar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id


DOI: 10.4103/0976-433X.121638

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Aloe vera is a versatile plant with a numerous health benefits. It has various outstanding features like anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-tumor which help in accelerating wound healing and in treating various lesions of the oral cavity. Although it has clinically proven benefits, its practical use in repairing oral lesions still warrants further research. The A. vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses in dentistry are briefly reviewed in the current article.

Keywords: Aloe vera, dentistry, oral lesions


How to cite this article:
Agarwal A, Dwivedi N. Aloe vera: Magic or myth . SRM J Res Dent Sci 2013;4:119-24

How to cite this URL:
Agarwal A, Dwivedi N. Aloe vera: Magic or myth . SRM J Res Dent Sci [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Jul 18];4:119-24. Available from: http://www.srmjrds.in/text.asp?2013/4/3/119/121638


  Introduction Top


The Aloe vera plant has been known and its used for centuries for its health, beauty, medicinal and skin care properties. The name A. vera derives from the Arabic word "Alloeh" meaning "shining bitter substance," while "vera" in Latin means "true." [1]

2000 years ago, Greek scientists regarded A. vera as an universal panacea. [2]

The virtues of A. vera have been recorded for thousands of years by many ancient civilizations including Egypt, Persia, Greek, India and Africa. [3]

There are over 250 different species of A. vera plants grown around the world, ranging from tiny little one-inch plants to others as tall as a tree. However, only two species are grown today commercially, with Aloe barbadensis Miller and Aloe arborescens being the most popular. In the United States most of the Aloe is grown in the Rio Grande Valley of South Texas, Florida and Southern California. Internationally Aloe can be found in Mexico. The Pacific Rim countries, India, South America, Central America, the Caribbean, Australia and Africa.

A. vera is one of the most versatile plants on the face of the earth. It can aid to treat many ailments both externally and internally and comes in the form of tea, gel, juice, salve, capsule and decoction forms. [4]

The Egyptians called Aloe "the plant of immortality." Today, the A. vera plant has been used for various purposes. The pharmacological actions of A. vera, as studied in vitro or in animals (in most cases the total leaf extract was used), include anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity, and antibacterial and hypoglycemic effects. [5]

Egyptian history refers to Aloe as favorite herb in Cleopatra's bath. A. vera has been used for medicinal purposes in several cultures for millennia: Greece, Egypt, India, Mexico, Japan, and China. [6]

A. vera has been used medicinally since the last few 1000 years. History states that wars have been fought, as by Hannibal, in order to obtain control over its growing area in North Africa around 1750 BC. Its uses are mentioned in various books and Mesopotamian clay tabloids in various countries such as Egypt, Greece, South Africa, India, China, Mexico and Japan for various ailments such as burns, hair loss, skin infections, hemorrhoids, sinusitis and gastrointestinal pain. [7]

Alexander the Great and Christopher Columbus used it to treat wounds of soldiers. The first reference to A. vera in English was a translation by John Goodyew in AD 1655 of Dioscoridesν Medical Treatise De Materia Medica. [8],[9]

Modern use of A. vera was first documented in the 1930s to heal radiation burns. [10] A. vera juice taken internally has been shown to have various beneficial effects on the body. [11]

The plant has triangular, fleshy leaves with serrated edges, yellow tubular flowers and fruits that contain numerous seeds. Each leaf is composed of three layers: (1) An inner clear gel that contains 99% water and the rest is made of glucomannans, amino acids, lipids, sterols and vitamins. (2) The middle layer of latex is a bitter yellow sap and contains anthraquinones and glycosides. (3) The outer thick layer of 15-20 cells is called a rind, which has a protective function and synthesizes carbohydrates and proteins. Inside the rind are vascular bundles responsible for transportation of substances like water (xylem) and starch (phloem). [7]


  Active components with its properties Top


A. vera contains 75 potentially active constituents: Vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids and amino acids. [12],[13],[14]

  1. Vitamins: It contains vitamins A (beta-carotene), C and E, which are antioxidants. It also contains vitamin B12, folic acid, and choline. Its antioxidant properties neutralize free radicals.
  2. Enzymes: It contains nine enzymes: Aliiase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, bradykinase, carboxypeptidase, catalase, cellulase, lipase, and peroxidase. Bradykinase helps to reduce excessive inflammation when applied to the skin topically, while others help in the breakdown of sugars and fats.
  3. Minerals: It contains calcium, chromium, copper, selenium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc. These are essential for the proper functioning of various enzyme systems in different metabolic pathways and few are antioxidants.
  4. Sugars: It contains monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) and polysaccharides (glucomannans/polymannose). These are derived from the mucilage layer of the plant and are known as mucopolysaccharides. The most prominent monosaccharide is mannose-6-phosphate and the most common polysaccharides are called glucomannans [beta-(1,4)-acetylated mannan]. Acemannan, a prominent glucomannan, has also been isolated. Recently a glycoprotein with anti-allergic properties called alprogen and a novel anti-inflammatory compound, C-glucosyl chromone, have been isolated from A. vera gel. [15],[16]
  5. Anthraquinones: It contains 12 anthraquinones, which are phenolic compounds traditionally known as laxatives. Aloin and emodin act as analgesics, antibacterials and antivirals.
  6. Fatty acids: It contains four plant steroids: Cholesterol, campesterol, β-sitosterol and lupeol. All these have anti-inflammatory action and lupeol also possesses antiseptic and analgesic properties.
  7. Hormones: Auxins and gibberellins that help in wound healing and have anti-inflammatory action are present.
  8. Others: It contains 20 out of the 22 human required amino acids and 7 out of the 8 essential amino acids. It also contains salicylic acid that possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. Lignin, an inert substance, when included in topical preparations, enhances the penetrative effect of the other ingredients into the skin. Saponins, that are the soapy substances, form about 3% of the gel and have cleansing and antiseptic properties.



  Mechanism of actions Top


Healing properties

Glucomannan, a mannose-rich polysaccharide and gibberellin, a growth hormone, interact with growth factor receptors on the fibroblast, thereby stimulating its activity and proliferation, which in turn significantly increases collagen synthesis after the application of topical and oral A. vera. Aloe gel not only increases collagen content of a wound but also changes collagen composition (more type III) and increases the degree of collagen cross linking. Due to this, it accelerates wound contraction and increases the breaking strength of resulting scar tissue. [17] An increased synthesis of hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulfate in the granulation tissue of a healing wound following oral or topical treatment has been reported. [18]

Various animal models have been used to study the promotion of wound healing by topical A. vera preparations. [19],[20],[21],[22],[23] On the whole, these investigations do seem to suggest that A. vera does enhance wound healing, although its mechanism of action is still unclear.

Effects on skin exposure to ultra violet (UV) and gamma radiation

A. vera gel has been reported to have a protective effect against radiation damage to the skin. [24]

Its exact role is not known, but following the administration of A. vera gel, an antioxidant protein, metallothionein, is generated in the skin, which scavenges hydroxyl radicals and prevents suppression of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the skin. It reduces the production and release of skin keratinocyte-derived immunosuppressive cytokines such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and hence prevents UV-induced suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity. [25]

Anti-inflammatory action

A. vera inhibits the cyclooxygenase pathway and reduces prostaglandin E2 production from arachidonic acid. Recently the novel anti-inflammatory compound called C-glucosyl chromone was isolated from gel extracts. [26] Several studies emphasize the anti-inflammatory properties of A. vera in mice and rats. [27],[28],[29]

Effects on the immune system

In a study on mice that had previously been implanted with murine sarcoma cells, acemannan stimulates the synthesis and release of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor from macrophages in mice, which in turn initiated an immune attack that resulted in necrosis and regression of the cancerous cells. [16] Several low-molecular-weight compounds are also capable of inhibiting the release of reactive oxygen free radicals from activated human neutrophils. [30]

Laxative effects

Anthraquinones present in Aloe containing latex are a potent laxative. It increases intestinal water content, stimulates mucus secretion and increases intestinal peristalsis. [31]

Antiviral and antitumor activity

These actions may be due to indirect or direct effects. One indirect effect is due to stimulation of the immune system and a direct effect is due to the action of anthraquinones. The anthraquinone aloin inactivates various enveloped viruses such as herpes simplex, varicella zoster and influenza. [32] In recent studies, a polysaccharide fraction has shown to inhibit the binding of benzopyrene to primary rat hepatocytes, thereby preventing the formation of potentially cancer-initiating benzopyrene-deoxyribonucleic acid adducts. An induction of glutathione S-transferase and an inhibition of the tumor-promoting effects of phorbol myristic acetate has also been reported, which suggest a possible benefit of using Aloe gel in cancer chemoprevention. [33]

In a recent study the in vitro anti-tumor activity of A. vera extract in cultured B16F10 melanoma cell line was evaluated and the results revealed that A. vera showed its best activity in the concentration of 300 μg/ml. Evaluation of in vitro anti-tumor activity revealed that A. vera extract exhibits effective cytotoxic activity. [34]

Moisturizing and anti-aging effect

Mucopolysaccharides help in binding moisture into the skin. Aloe stimulates the fibroblast which produces the collagen and elastin fibers that make the skin more elastic and less wrinkled. It also has cohesive effects on the superficial flaking epidermal cells by sticking them together, which softens the skin. The amino acids in Aloe also soften hardened skin cells and zinc acts as an astringent to tighten pores. Its moisturizing effects have also been studied in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure where A. vera gel gloves improved the skin integrity, decreases the appearance of fine wrinkle and erythema. [35] It also has anti-acne effect.

Antiseptic effect

A. vera contains six antiseptic agents: Lupeol, salicylic acid, urea nitrogen, cinnamonic acid, phenols and sulfur. They all have inhibitory action on fungi, bacteria and viruses. The antimicrobial activity of Aloe extracts was postulated as early as 1939. Isolates from A. vera were shown to inhibit microbes like Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. [36]

Anti-diabetic effect

An early clinical trial in India where over 3000 "mildly" diabetic patients were fed with bread incorporating Aloe gel, demonstrated a reduction in blood sugar levels in over 90% of the cases. [37]

Dried Aloe exudate has been used in Arabia in diabetes treatment. Administration to non-insulin dependent human patients in a small trial resulted in a sustained lowering of blood sugar levels. [38]

Again, a number of diabetic patients in Thailand were treated orally with "A. vera juice", to their benefit. Blood sugar and triglyceride levels fell during the treatment period. [39] In parallel trials, patients that failed to respond to other anti-diabetic medication responded to the Aloe treatment in a similar way. [40]

The question arises whether A. vera is safe. Studies in mice revealed no acute toxicity in therapeutic doses. In high doses, however, a decrease of central nervous system activity was noticed. During chronic treatment, there was a decrease in red cell count and significant sperm damage. [41] No systematic investigations exist in humans. In the reviewed trials, no withdrawals or serious adverse reactions were reported. Three patients experienced allergic reactions. [42],[43],[44],[45] All adverse effects were reversible and A. vera was generally very well tolerated. This corresponds with anecdotal reports relating to contact dermatitis and hyper-sensitivity [46],[47] A. vera may delay wound healing after topical application. It may also cause diarrhea and hypokalemia with oral use. [48]

Drug interactions

Aloe gel might enhance the ability of hydrocortisone to reduce swelling if applied topically. [49] If ingested, it might lead to increased hypoglycemia in conjunction with oral anti-diabetics or insulin. [50] A. vera inner gel may significantly increase the absorption of vitamins C and E after oral application. [49] A. vera gel for systemic application is not recommended in combination with anti-diabetic, diuretic or laxative drugs; sevoflurane or digoxin. [51]


  Uses of A. Vera in dentistry Top


A. vera is used in dentistry for several pathological conditions, and it is still in the explorative stage.

In the treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP)

Different treatment modalities have been used for symptomatic OLP, with variable results, perhaps due to the refractory nature of the disease. In a recent study, the efficacy of the topical application of A. vera in OLP compared with placebo was evaluated. The results of this study showed that the topical application of A. vera improves the total quality of life in patients with OLP. [52 It has been suggested that A. vera can inhibit the inflammatory process through interference with the arachidonic acid pathway via cyclooxygenase. Recent data suggested than A. vera also exerted anti-inflammatory effects through the reduction of leukocyte adhesion and TNF-a levels. [13],[53],[ 54 ]

As a periodontal dressing

Applications are directly to the sites of periodontal surgery along with periodontal dressing or to gum tissues when they have been traumatized by toothbrush-dentifrice abrasion, sharp foods, dental floss and toothpick injuries. Existing evidence indicates that A. vera used in variety of concentrations might be effective in shortening the duration of wound healing. [56]

A recent study highlighted the properties of A. vera as a medicament in periodontal pocket. They concluded that the administration of A. vera gel resulted in improved periodontal condition. Therefore, A. vera can be used as a local drug delivery system. [55]

In endodontics and oral surgery

In a recent study, A. vera gel was applied in 15 cases of the extraction of primary molars. The results showed positive signs of healing after histopathological examination was done following extraction. The authors concluded that A. vera can be used as an anti-inflammatory agent in endodontic procedures like pulpotomy. [56]

The anti-microbial activity of A. vera was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in decontaminating gutta-percha cones. A concentrated extract of A. vera was used to check for the antimicrobial efficacy using the agar well diffusion method. The results showed that A. vera was effective as a gutta-percha decontaminant and it holds a promising future as a medium of storage of gutta-percha cones. [57]

According to one study extraction sites heal properly and dry socket formation is prevented when A. vera is applied on the extraction site. [58]

Oral recurrent ulceration

Acute mouth lesions are improved by direct application of A. vera in gel form on herpetic viral lesions or aphthous ulcers. It has been reported that acemannan hydrogel accelerates the healing of aphthous ulcers and reduces the pain associated with them. [59]

According to one study, A. vera showed 78.72% and 80% inhibition of micro-organisms at depths of 200 and 400 μm from day 1 to 5. The possible reason for antimicrobial action of A. vera could be the presence of 75 potentially active constituents: Vitamins, enzymes, minerals, sugars, lignin, saponins, salicylic acids, and amino acids. [60]

A double-blind (case control) clinical trial was conducted on 40 patients with oral minor aphthous. It was found that the duration of complete wound healing, pain score, wound size and inflammation zone diameter in the A. vera treated group were significantly lower than the control group (P ≤ 0.05) on specific time points after treatment. It was likely that A. vera 2% oral gel was not only effective in decreasing the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patients' pain score and wound size but also decreased the aphthous wound healing period. [61]

A. vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF)

According to a preliminary study carried out to compare the efficacy of A. vera with antioxidants in the treatment for OSMF it was found that A. vera recepient's responded better in all the parameters assessed and responded in all the clinic-histopathological stages, particularly in those with mild-stage clinically and early-stage histopathologically. Overall assessment of the parameters indicated that the A. vera group showed a better treatment response compared to the antioxidants group. It reduced the burning sensation and improved mouth opening ability thereby enhancing the patients' compliance. [62]

A. vera as denture adhesives

Because of the sticky and viscous nature of acemannan, aprototype acemannan was formulated into a denture adhesive and evaluated for adhesive strength in both wet and dry conditions; the adhesive also was used to evaluate cytotoxicity to human gingival fibroblasts. An optimal formula with a high and relatively stable adhesive bond strength and minimum cytotoxicity was observed. [63]

Other uses of A. vera in dentistry

The anti-microbial effect of a dentifrice containing A. vera has been demonstrated in an in vitro study, in which this phytotherapic agent inhibited the growth of diverse oral microorganisms, such as Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus and Candida albicans[64]

.


  Conclusion Top


A. vera has been known for its healing properties since ancient times, but its use in dentistry is still limited. There is lack of clinical studies with randomized control trials elaborating the role of A. vera which limits its use for clinical application. Further research is needed to substantiate the usefulness of this herbal remedy for oral lesions. Owing to its anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties it can be an effective, cheap and natural substitute to costly treatment for many oral lesions. In conclusion, A. vera has a promising future in dentistry, but further studies with larger sample size are needed to popularize its widespread use.

 
  References Top

1.Tyler VE, Brady LR, Robbers JE. Pharmacognosy. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1976. p. 81-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Sikarwar MS, Patil MB, Sharma S, Vishnu B. Aloe vera: Plant of immortality. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2010;1:7-10.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Rolf C, Zimmerli T. Experience Aloe vera is miraculous health supporting benefits. 2000.[cited:22.8.13] Available from: http://wholeleaf.com. .  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Free Extract by Reuben T. "Aloe Vera - The Magical Plant Amongst Us". Available from: http://dpdotcom.com. [Last accessed on 2013 Aug 22].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Newall CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines. A Guide for Health-care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press; 1996. p. 263.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Marshall JM. Aloe vera gel: What is the evidence? Pharm J 1990;24:360-2.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Wynn RL. Aloe vera gel: Update for dentistry. Gen Dent 2005;53:6-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Kumar KP, Bhowmik D, Biswajit C. Aloe vera: A potential herb and its medicinal importance. J Chem Pharm Res 2010;2:21-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Atherton P. Aloe vera: Magic or medicine? Nurs Stand 1998;12:49-52, 54.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Collins CE. Alvagel as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of roentgen and radium burns. Radiol Rev Chicago Med Rec 1935; 57:137-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Tyler V. The Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 3 rd ed. Binghamton, New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press; 1993.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Atherton P. Aloe vera revisited. Br J Phytother 1998;4:76-83.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Shelton RM. Aloe vera. Its chemical and therapeutic properties. Int J Dermatol 1991;30:679-83.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]    
14.Atherton P. The Essential Aloe vera: The Actions and the Evidence. 2 nd ed.; 1997.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Ro JY, Lee BC, Kim JY, Chung YJ, Chung MH, Lee SK, et al. Inhibitory mechanism of Aloe single component (alprogen) on mediator release in guinea pig lung mast cells activated with specific antigen-antibody reactions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000;292:114-21.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]    
16.Hutter JA, Salman M, Stavinoha WB, Satsangi N, Williams RF, Streeper RT, et al. Antiinflammatory C-glucosyl chromone from Aloe barbadensis. J Nat Prod 1996;59:541-3.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]    
17.Heggers JP, Kucukcelebi A, Listengarten D, Stabenau J, Ko F, Broemeling LD, et al. Beneficial effect of Aloe on wound healing in an excisional wound model. J Altern Complement Med 1996;2:271-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Chithra P, Sajithlal GB, Chandrakasan G. Influence of Aloe vera on the glycosaminoglycans in the matrix of healing dermal wounds in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;59:179-86.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]    
19.Davis RH, Leitner MG, Russo JM, Byrne ME. Wound healing. Oral and topical activity of Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1989;79:559-62.  Back to cited text no. 19
[PUBMED]    
20.Davis RH, Leitner MG, Russo JM. Aloe vera. A natural approach for treating wounds, edema, and pain in diabetes. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1988;78:60-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
[PUBMED]    
21.Watcher MA, Wheeland RG. The role of topical agents in the healing of full-thickness wounds. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1989;15:1188-95.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]    
22.Kaufman T, Kalderon N, Ullmann Y, Berger J. Aloe vera gel hindered wound healing of experimental second-degree burns: A quantitative controlled study. J Burn Care Rehabil 1988;9:156-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
[PUBMED]    
23.Heggers JP, Elzaim H, Garfield R, Goodheart R, Listengarten D, Zhao J, et al. Effect of the combination of Aloe vera, nitroglycerin, and L-NAME on wound healing in the rat excisional model. J Altern Complement Med 1997;3:149-53.  Back to cited text no. 23
[PUBMED]    
24.Roberts DB, Travis EL. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gel reduces radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1995;32:1047-52.  Back to cited text no. 24
[PUBMED]    
25.Sato Y, Ohta S, Shinoda M. Studies on chemical protectors against radiation. XXXI. Protection effects of Aloe arborescens on skin injury induced by X-irradiation. Yakugaku Zasshi 1990;110:876-84.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Byeon SW, Pelley RP, Ullrich SE, Waller TA, Bucana CD, Strickland FM. Aloe barbadensis extracts reduce the production of interleukin-10 after exposure to ultraviolet radiation. J Invest Dermatol 1998;110:811-7.  Back to cited text no. 26
[PUBMED]    
27.Davis RH, Leitner MG, Russo JM. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe vera as measured by ear swelling. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1987;77:610-2.  Back to cited text no. 27
[PUBMED]    
28.Davis RH, Donato JJ, Hartman GM, Haas RC. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 1994;84:77-81.  Back to cited text no. 28
[PUBMED]    
29.Vázquez B, Avila G, Segura D, Escalante B. Antiinflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;55:69-75.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Peng SY, Norman J, Curtin G, Corrier D, McDaniel HR, Busbee D. Decreased mortality of Norman murine sarcoma in mice treated with the immunomodulator, Acemannan. Mol Biother 1991;3:79-87.  Back to cited text no. 30
[PUBMED]    
31.Ishii Y, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. Studies of aloe. V. Mechanism of cathartic effect. (4). Biol Pharm Bull 1994;17:651-3.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Sydiskis RJ, Owen DG, Lohr JL, Rosler KH, Blomster RN. Inactivation of enveloped viruses by anthraquinones extracted from plants. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1991;35:2463-6.  Back to cited text no. 32
[PUBMED]    
33.Kim HS, Lee BM. Inhibition of benzo a pyrene-DNA adduct formation by Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carcinogenesis 1997;18:771-6.   Back to cited text no. 33
[PUBMED]    
34.Chandu AN, Kumar SC, Bhattacharya C, Debnath S. Cytotoxicity study of plant Aloe vera (Linn). Chron Young Sci 2012;3:233-5.  Back to cited text no. 34
  Medknow Journal  
35.West DP, Zhu YF. Evaluation of Aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure. Am J Infect Control 2003;31:40-2.  Back to cited text no. 35
[PUBMED]    
36.Tan BK, Vanitha J. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional Chinese medicinal herbs: A review. Curr Med Chem 2004;11:1423-30.  Back to cited text no. 36
[PUBMED]    
37.Agarwal OP. Prevention of atheromatous heart disease. Angiology 1985;36:485-92.  Back to cited text no. 37
[PUBMED]    
38.Ghannam N, Kingston M, Al-Meshaal IA, Tariq M, Parman NS, Woodhouse N. The antidiabetic activity of aloes: Preliminary clinical and experimental observations. Horm Res 1986;24:288-94.  Back to cited text no. 38
[PUBMED]    
39.Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Chokechaijaroenporn O. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. I. Clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus. Phytomedicine 1996;3:241-3.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.Bunyapraphatsara N, Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Chokechaijaroenporn O. Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide. Phytomedicine 1996;3:245-8.  Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Shah AH, Qureshi S, Tariq M, Ageel AM. Toxicity studies on six plants used in the traditional Arab system of medicine. Phytother Res 1989;3:25-9.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Williams MS, Burk M, Loprinzi CL, Hill M, Schomberg PJ, Nearhood K, et al. Phase III double-blind evaluation of an Aloe vera gel as a prophylactic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996;36:345-9.  Back to cited text no. 42
[PUBMED]    
43.Fulton JE Jr. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1990;16:460-7.  Back to cited text no. 43
[PUBMED]    
44.Syed TA, Cheema KM, Ashfaq A, Holt AH. Aloe vera extract 0.5% in a hydrophilic cream versus Aloe vera gel for the management of genital herpes in males. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, comparative study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1996;7:294-5.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.Syed TA, Afzal M, Ahmad SA, Holt AH, Ahmed SA, Ahmad SH.Management of genital herpes in men with 0.5% Aloe vera extract in a hydrophylic cream: A placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Dermatol Treat 1997;8:99-102.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.Hogan DJ. Widespread dermatitis after topical treatment of chronic leg ulcers and stasis dermatitis. CMAJ 1988;138:336-8.  Back to cited text no. 46
[PUBMED]    
47.Skinner WJ. Aloe vera injections result in medical license suspension. Nat Med Law™ 1997;1:33-8.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 2 nd ed. Sandy Eclectic Medical Publications; 1998 : 85.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Monographs on Selected Medical Plants. 1 st ed., Vol. 1. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1999.   Back to cited text no. 49
    
50. Vinson JA, Al Kharrat H, Andreoli L. Effect of Aloe vera preparations on the human bioavailability of vitamins C and E. Phytomedicine 2005;12:760-5.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.Jellin JM. Aloe. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Therapeutic Research Faculty; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.Salazar-Sánchez N, López-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F, Sánchez-Siles M. Efficacy of topical Aloe vera in patients with oral lichen planus: A randomized double-blind study. J Oral Pathol Med 2010;39:735-40.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.Klein AD, Penneys NS. Aloe vera. J Am Acad Dermatol 1988;18:714-20.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.Duansak D, Somboonwong J, Patumraj S. Effects of Aloe vera on leukocyte adhesion and TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in burn wounded rats. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2003;29:239-46.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.Bhat G, Kudva P, Dodwad V. Aloe vera: Nature's soothing healer to periodontal disease. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2011;15:205-9.  Back to cited text no. 55
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
56.Gupta N, Bhat M, Devi P, Girish. Aloe-vera: A Nature's gift to childrenInt J Clin Pediatr Dent 2010;3:87-92.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.Athiban PP, Borthakur BJ, Ganesan S, Swathika B. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and its effectiveness in decontaminating Gutta percha cones. J Conserv Dent 2012;15:246-8.  Back to cited text no. 57
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
58.Poor MR, Hall JE, Poor AS. Reduction in the incidence of alveolar osteitis in patients treated with the SaliCept patch, containing Acemannan hydrogel. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002;60:374-9.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.Garnick JJ, Singh B, Winkley G. Effectiveness of a medicament containing silicon dioxide, aloe, and allantoin on aphthous stomatitis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1998;86:550-6.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.Bhardwaj A, Ballal S, Velmurugan N. Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of Morinda citrifolia, papain and Aloe vera (all in gel formulation), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2012;15:293-7.  Back to cited text no. 60
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
61.Babaee N, Zabihi E, Mohseni S, Moghadamnia AA. Evaluation of the therapeutic effects of Aloe vera gel on minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2012;9:381-5.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.Sudarshan R, Annigeri RG, Sree Vijayabala G. Aloe vera in the treatment for oral submucous fibrosis - A preliminary study. J Oral Pathol Med 2012;41:755-61.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.Tello CG, Ford P, Iacopino AM. In vitro evaluation of complex carbohydrate denture adhesive formulations. Quintessence Int 1998;29:585-93.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.Lee SS, Zhang W, Li Y. The antimicrobial potential of 14 natural herbal dentifrices: Results of an in vitro diffusion method study. J Am Dent Assoc 2004;135:1133-41.  Back to cited text no. 64
    



This article has been cited by
1 Evaluation of efficacy of aloe vera in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis - a clinical study
Ardra Anuradha,Bharati Patil,Venkataswamy Reddy Asha
Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Active component...
Mechanism of actions
Conclusion
Uses of A.
References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3971    
    Printed40    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded423    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal