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 Table of Contents  
CASE REPORT
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 268-270

Circummandibular wiring: An absolute answer to paediatric maxillofacial trauma: An unusual case report


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kalka Dental College and Hospital, Meerut, India
2 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Kalka Dental College and Hospital, Meerut, India
3 Department of Prosthodontics, Shree Bankey Bihari Dental College and Research Centre, Ghaziabad, India
4 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, ITS Dental College, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication12-Jul-2013

Correspondence Address:
Prince Kumar
Department of Prosthodontics, Shree Bankey Bihari Dental College and Research Centre, Masuri, Ghaziabad - 201302
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0976-433X.114978

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  Abstract 

On an average the incidence of pediatric maxillofacial injuries accounts for 4-6% of cases. Operative management should involve minimal manipulation and may be modified by the stage of skeletal and dental development. The goal of treatment of these fractures is to restore the underlying bony architecture to pre-injury position, in a stable fashion, as non-invasively as possible, and with minimal residual esthetic and functional impairment. The purpose of this article is to provide an insight on maxillofacial injuries in pediatric patient and to assist the clinician in the management of mandibular parasymphysis fracture in children with occlusal acrylic splint fixed with circummandibular wiring, a definitive treatment modality.

Keywords: Circummandibular wiring, Jaw fixation techniques, pediatric patient


How to cite this article:
Yadav S, Tyagi S, Kumar P, Sharma N. Circummandibular wiring: An absolute answer to paediatric maxillofacial trauma: An unusual case report. SRM J Res Dent Sci 2012;3:268-70

How to cite this URL:
Yadav S, Tyagi S, Kumar P, Sharma N. Circummandibular wiring: An absolute answer to paediatric maxillofacial trauma: An unusual case report. SRM J Res Dent Sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2019 Jul 19];3:268-70. Available from: http://www.srmjrds.in/text.asp?2012/3/4/268/114978


  Introduction Top


In childhood, a generally impetuous nature and adventurous spirit combine to encourage participation in physical activities with little thought to immediate consequences, still paradoxically facial injuries in children are much less common than in adults. [1] The reported incidence of pediatric injuries accounts for 4-6% of the total. Below the age of 5 years, the incidence of pediatric facial fractures is even lower, ranging from 0.6-1.2%. [2 ]

When compared to adults, the pattern of fractures and frequency of associated injuries are similar inspite of the overall incidence being much lower. Treatment is usually performed without delay and can be limited to observation or closed reduction in non-displaced or minimally displaced fractures. Operative management should involve minimal manipulation and may be modified by the stage of skeletal and dental development. Open reduction and rigid internal fixation is indicated for severely displaced fractures. When tooth buds within the mandible do not allow internal fixation with plates and screws, this can be achieved with a mandibular cap splint or occlusal acrylic splint fixed to the teeth, to the mandible with circummandibular wire. [1] The goal of treatment of these fractures is to restore the underlying bony architecture to pre-injury position, in a stable fashion, as non-invasively as possible, with minimal residual esthetic and functional impairment. [3]

Above all the immense capacity for healing in children within the shortest possible time with minimum of complications, the assistance that growth can give, and the inherent ability to adapt to new situation are quite different from what we see in adults. [1] The purpose of this article is to provide an insight on maxillofacial injuries in pediatric patient and to assist the clinician in the management of mandibular parasymphysis fracture in children with occlusal acrylic splint fixed with circummandibular wiring, as a definitive treatment modality.


  Case Report Top


A 4-year-old boy reported to the dental clinic with bleeding from oral cavity following fall from roof of his house while playing. Clinical examination revealed bruise on the chin, open mouth appearance with profuse bleeding from the oral cavity, and derangement of occlusion. Step deformity with tenderness and mobility was elicited along the lower border of the mandible on the left-side canine region. Preoperative orthopantamogram (OPG) was taken, which confirmed left parasymphisis fracture [Figure 1]. Under nasoendotracheal intubation, upper and lower arch alginate impressions were taken and stone casts were poured. An open occlusal acrylic splint was fabricated and mandibular fracture was immobilized, fixed with the acrylic splint that was retained by circummandibular wiring. Circummandibular wiring was done by placing a small-stab incision on the inferior border of mandible on right and left side 4-5 cm from the midline. Mandibular bone awl was used to enter lingually along the body of the mandible and piercing lingual mucosa the wire was fed and passed onto buccal sulcus along the body of the mandible. Wire held together and stent stabilized by winding wire in clockwise direction at 83,84 region. Same procedure was repeated on the left side [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. Another circummandibular wire was placed at the left body region to stabilize the fractured fragment at the lower border of mandible. Postoperative OPG was taken with circummandibular wires in place [Figure 4]. The patient was reviewed every week and, on the third postoperative week, the circummandibular wiring and splint was removed under ketamine sedation. No mobility was present at the fracture site. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and occlusion achieved was satisfactory. The patient was reviewed monthly for 6 months and had perfect occlusion and good masticatory efficiency.
Figure 1: Pre-operative orthopantamogram

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Figure 2: Circummandibular wiring using bone awl

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Figure 3: Acrylic occlusal splint fixed with circummandibular wire

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Figure 4: Post-operative orthopantamogram

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  Discussion Top


Mandibular fractures are the most common facial skeletal injury in pediatric trauma patients. [1] Fractures in children account for the approximately 5% of all facial fractures. [4] The protective anatomic feature of a child's face decreases the incidence of facial fractures. In young children (<5 year old), the face is in a more retruded position relative to the "protective" skull, therefore, there is a lower incidence of midface and mandibular fractures and a higher incidence of cranial injuries. [5]

A male predilection is seen in all age groups. Fractures in the condylar region are the most common, followed by angle and body fractures. Posnick and colleagues studied that 39% of all fractures were of the mandible. Mandibular fracture sites included the condyle (59 of 107, 55%), parasymphysis (29 of 107, 27%), body (10 of 107, 9%), and angle (9 of 107, 8%). [3],[6] Etiologies of mandibular fractures in children are usually falls and sports injuries. [3] Young bone possesses unique physical properties that coupled with space occupying developing dentition give rise to patterns of fracture not seen in adults. Bone fragments in children may become partially united as early as 4 days and fractures become difficult to reduce by the seventh day. [7] This results in need for different forms of fixation as early as possible for comparatively shorter duration of time. Non-union or fibrous union rarely occurs in children and excellent remodeling occurs under the influence of masticatory stresses even when there is imperfect apposition of bone surfaces. [1]

The management of mandibular fractures in children differs somewhat from that of adults mainly because of the concern for possible disruption of growth. In children, the final result is determined not merely by initial treatment but by the effect that growth has on form and function. [1 ] The shape and shortness of deciduous crowns may make the placement of circumdental wires and arch bar slightly more difficult in children. While doing open reduction and fixation, presence of tooth buds throughout the body of mandible must be a consideration as trauma to developing tooth buds may result in failure of eruption of permanent teeth and hence narrow alveolar ridge. [1] Several studies have recommended the use of pre-fabricated acrylic splints as a treatment for pediatric mandibular fractures. These splints are more reliable than open reduction or inter maxillary fixation (IMF) techniques with regard to cost effectiveness, ease of application and removal, reduced operating time, maximum stability during healing period, minimal trauma for adjacent anatomical structures, and comfort for young patients. [8]


  Conclusion Top


The anatomical complexity of the developing mandible and teeth and concerns regarding biocompatibility of implanted hardware often mandate the use of surgical techniques that differ markedly from those used in adults. In cases of mandibular fractures of a young child, disruption of periosteal envelope may have unpredictable effects on growth. Thus, if intervention is required, closed reduction is favored. Due to the technical difficulties of IMF, acrylic splints with circumferential wiring are recommended and remains the treatment of choice in young children.


  Acknowledgment Top


The authors would like to express gratitude to their colleagues in India, especially Dr. Prince Kumar, for help regarding preparation and editing of the manuscript.

 
  References Top

1.Sharma S, Vashistha A, Chugh A, Kumar D, Bihani U, Trehan M, et al. Paediatric mandibular fractures: A review. Int J Clin Pediatric Dent 2009;2:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Tandon S. Textbook of Pedodontics. 1 st ed. Hyderabad: Paras Medical Publisher New Delhi; 2001. p. 490.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.John B, Jhon RR, Stalin A, Elango I. Management of mandibular body fractures in paediatric patients: A case report with review of literature. Contemp Clin Dent 2010;1:291-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Aizenbud D, Hazan-Molina H, Emodi O, Rachmiel A. The management of mandibular body fractures in young children. Dental Traumatol 2009;25:565-70.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.McGraw BL, Cole RR. Paediatric maxillofacial trauma, age related variations in injury. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1990;116:41-5.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Posnick JC, Goldstein JA. Surgical management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis in the paediatric population. Plast Reconstr Surg 1993;91:791-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Kaban LB, Mulliken JB, Murray JE. Facial fractures in children: An analysis of 122 fractures in 109 patients. Plast Reconst Surg 1977;59:15-20.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Kocabay C, Atac MS, Oner B, Gungor N. The conservative approach of paediatric mandibular fractures with prefabricated surgical splint: A case report. Dent Traumatol 2007;23:247-50.  Back to cited text no. 8
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
Case Report
Discussion
Conclusion
Acknowledgment
References
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